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David H. Byrne, Patricia Klein, Muqing Yan, Ellen Young, Jeekin Lau, Kevin Ong, Madalyn Shires, Jennifer Olson, Mark Windham, Tom Evans, and Danielle Novick

the final decision is made on their release. Thus, it takes a minimum of 7 years to develop a new cultivar if only one breeding cycle is needed ( Table 3 ). Table 3. Basic breeding cycle for adapted garden roses. By contrast, if a non-remontant wild

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James A. Schrader, Diana R. Cochran, Paul A. Domoto, and Gail R. Nonnecke

not included in evaluations at other sites. The cultivars evaluated in our study included 10 newer cultivars and advanced selections: seven from the University of Minnesota Cold-Hardy Grape Breeding Program (La Crescent, Marquette, MN 1189, MN 1200, MN

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Xi-Lin Hou, Shou-Chun Caq, and Zhong-Chun Jiang*

It reviewed the research and development on genetic resources in non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp.chinensis Makino var. communis Tsen et Lee) achieved during the past 50 years. Researches were carried out on the methodology and classification of horticultural crops, investigation and collection of the genetic resources and development of new cultivars. Further studies were conducted on the morphological and biological characteristics, identification and analysis of disease resistance and genetic model of main economic characteristics. On these bases, 13 new cultivars were selected and spread to 800,000 hm2.

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Pablo Bolaños-Villegas, Shih-Wen Chin, and Fure-Chyi Chen

applied to produce new cultivars of orchids ( Lin et al., 2001 ), as has been the case with colchicine-doubled amphidiploid cultivars in Dendrobium Swartz ( Kamemoto et al., 1999 ). In Phalaenopsis Blume, interspecific and intergeneric hybridization

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Gaetano Distefano, Giuseppina Las Casas, Stefano La Malfa, Alessandra Gentile, Eugenio Tribulato, and Maria Herrero

. Results in the field suggest that particular cultivars often produce a high number of seeds ( Chao, 2005 ). However, the basis of this fact remains unknown. The problem started in the 1970s, when several new cultivars (including hybrids) were released to

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Josh A. Honig, Vincenzo Averello, Stacy A. Bonos, and William A. Meyer

-America type was a newly defined subtype within the Compact type. As numerous new cultivars were developed within the Compact-America subtype, this new group came to be considered a separate classification grouping. The UPGMA cluster analysis indicated a

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Danqing Li, Jiao Zhang, Jiaping Zhang, Kang Li, and Yiping Xia

. Moreover, the relationship between green period, calculated using predicted sigmoid curves, and foliar cold tolerance, measured using LT 50 , was studied to provide a theoretical basis for molecular marker-assisted breeding of new cultivars that combine the

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Erin M.R. Clark, John M. Dole, Alicain S. Carlson, Erin P. Moody, Ingram F. McCall, Frankie L. Fanelli, and William C. Fonteno

Each year a wide variety of new cultivars and species are evaluated in the National Cut Flower Trial Programs administered by North Carolina State University and the Association of Specialty Cut Flower Growers. These new cultivars are tested at

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Liang-jun Zhao

Technological achievements of the flower industry since 1978 in China are summarized into six sections, which include 1) main ornamental plant gemplasm resources and its utilization; 2) introduction, improvement and propagation of new cultivars; 3) flower seed industry. The development trends and problems of the flower industry are also analyzed, especially in the flower seed industry.

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Xuan Huang and Liangjun Zhao*

As well as investigating physiological characteristics of the new yellow cultivar of Celtis julianae—`Golden Phoenix' (Julian hackberry, which originally distributed in south of China, is important environmental plant, because there are numerous hairs on surfaces of the leaf, which can absorb dust and clean the air. Julian hackberry is deciduous big tree, more than 25 meters in high, with deep green leaf, red flower and orange fruit, blossoming in April.), differences in leaf color between the new cultivar and the normal Celtis julianae were evaluated. The new cultivar is a natural seed mutant from some cultivated seedlings of Celtis julianae found in 2001. It has golden yellow leaf, average color is Yellow-Green150A mensurating by English Color Card, is significantly more different than those of the normal. It can normally growing but slowly, with smaller plant-size and shorter internode than common plant. The new cultivar's leaf contains less chlorophyll than the normal, but same carotenoid. Its net photosynthetic rate is lower than that of Julian hackberry common cultivates in full sunlight. Shading of leaf to 50% sunlight decreases chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate compared with full sunlight and sharper in photosynthetic, resulting in deepen green color. Leaves of the new cultivar show higher values of lightness and yellow-green as compared with other normal. Shoot multiplication frequency was highest on woody plant medium containing 1.5 mg 6-BA(benzyladenine)/ml, producing 6 shoots from a single explant, but these are some troubles to root.