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Min Wang and I.L. Goldman

The root-knot nematode (M. hapla Chitwood) poses a threat to carrot (Daucus carota L.) production in the United States. Little information is available concerning the genetic control of nematode resistance in carrot. Crosses between two inbreds, a resistant genotype (R1) and susceptible genotype (S1) identified in previous screening tests of carrot were studied in the F2 and BC1 generations to determine the heritability of resistance to the root-knot nematode. Seedlings of F2 (R1/S1), BC1S1, and BC1R1 generations were evaluated for their responses to infestation of M. hapla Chitwood based on gall number per root, gall rating per root, and root rating per root in a greenhouse experiment conducted during 1994. Narrow-sense heritabilities were calculated according to the method of Warner (1952). Narrow-sense heritability was 0.16 for resistance based on gall number, 0.88 for resistance based on gall rating, and 0.78 for resistance based on root rating. This information may be of importance to geneticists and carrot breeders for the development of nematode-resistant carrot cultivars.

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Richard L. Fery and Judy A. Thies

The USDA–ARS has released a new Habanero-type pepper cultivar named TigerPaw-NR. The new cultivar is the product of a conventional recurrent backcross breeding procedure to transfer a dominant root-knot nematode resistance gene from the Scotch Bonnet accession PA-426 into the Habanero-type accession PA-350. TigerPaw-NR was derived from a single F3BC4 plant grown in 2002. TigerPaw-NR is homozygous for a dominant gene conditioning a high level of resistance to the southern root-knot nematode, the peanut root-knot nematode, and the tropical root-knot nematode. TigerPaw-NR has a compact plant habit and produces attractive lantern-shaped, orange-colored fruit. The results of three replicated field studies conducted at Charleston, S.C., indicate that the fruit and yield characteristics of TigerPaw-NR are comparable to those of currently available Habanero-type cultivars. A typical fruit weighs 7.8 g, is 2.7 cm wide × 4.4 cm long, and is extremely pungent (348,634 Scoville heat units). Root-knot nematodes are major pests of peppers in the United States, and all Habanero-type cultivars currently available to commercial growers and home gardeners are susceptible. The root-knot nematode resistant TigerPaw-NR is recommended for use by both commercial growers and home gardeners. Protection for TigerPaw-NR is being sought under the Plant Variety Protection Act.

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Richard L. Fery and Judy A. Thies

Greenhouse experiments determined the inheritance of resistance to the peanut root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal) Chitwood race 1] in Capsicum chinense Jacq. germplasm lines PA-353 and PA-426. Evaluation of parental, F1, F2, and backcross populations of the crosses PA-353 × PA-350 and PA-426 × PA-350 (PA-350 is a susceptible cultigen) indicated that resistance in both C. chinense germplasm lines was conditioned by a single dominant gene. Evaluation of the F1 × resistant parent backcross populations in the cytoplasm of their respective resistant and susceptible parents indicated that the cytoplasm of the resistant parent is not needed for full expression of resistance. Allelism tests indicated that the dominant resistance gene in both PA-353 and PA-426 is allelic to a resistance gene in C. annuum L. `Carolina Cayenne'. However, these allelism tests did not demonstrate conclusively that the M. arenaria race 1 resistance gene in C. chinense is the N gene that conditions resistance to the southern root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood] in C. annuum. The ease and reliability of evaluating plants for resistance to root-knot nematodes and the availability of simply inherited sources of resistance makes breeding for peanut root-knot nematode resistance a viable objective in C. chinense breeding programs.

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Judy A. Thies and Richard L. Fery

Two isogenic sets of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) lines (differing at the N root-knot nematode resistance locus) were characterized for resistance to Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal) Chitwood races 1 and 2, M. hapla Chitwood, and M. javanica (Treub) Chitwood in greenhouse and growth chamber tests. The isogenic sets of C. annuum were `Charleston Belle' (NN) and `Keystone Resistant Giant' (nn-recurrent parent), and `Carolina Wonder' (NN) and `Yolo Wonder B' (nn-recurrent parent). Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 is pathogenic to C. annuum. `Charleston Belle' and `Carolina Wonder' exhibited high resistance to M. arenaria race 1. Their respective recurrent backcross parents, `Keystone Resistant Giant' and `Yolo Wonder B', were susceptible to M. arenaria. Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and M. javanica are not highly pathogenic to pepper. However, `Charleston Belle' and `Carolina Wonder' both exhibited higher (P≤0.05) resistance to M. arenaria race 2 and M. javanica than `Keystone Resistant Giant' and `Yolo Wonder B'. Meloidogyne hapla is pathogenic to pepper. Both `Charleston Belle' and `Carolina Wonder' and their respective recurrent parents, `Keystone Resistant Giant' and `Yolo Wonder B', were susceptible to M. hapla. We concluded that the N gene confers resistance to M. arenaria races 1 and 2, and M. javanica in C. annuum, but the N gene does not condition resistance to M. hapla.

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Anne M. Gillen and Fredrick A. Bliss

Peach rootstock breeding may be accelerated by utilization of molecular markers linked to the root-knot nematode resistance locus (Mi) to screen segregating populations. A genetic linkage map was constructed using RFLP markers in an F2 population (PMP2) that is segregating for this locus. PMP2 is derived from a controlled cross of the relatively diverse peach rootstocks Harrow Blood (susceptible) and Okinawa (homozygous resistant). Bulked Segregant Analysis was applied using RAPD markers. A single small (227 base pairs) RAPD marker was found to be linked to the dominant resistant allele of Mi at a distance of 10 cM. This new marker joined the Mi locus to the RFLP linkage map and showed that two dominant RFLP markers are located between the RAPD marker and Mi. RFLPS are expensive, time-consuming and RAPD markers are unreliable, and therefore both are unsuitable for screening breeding populations. We attempted to convert the RAPD marker to a more breeder-friendly CAPS marker. The converted CAP marker was dominant. Attempts to convert the CAP marker to a co-dominant marker were not successful. The utility of the CAP marker was tested in an open pollinated F2 population derived from the F1 parent of PMP2 and in several rootstocks. The genetic linkage map was compared to other Prunus maps. The PMP2 linkage group containing the Mi locus can be related to the peach × almond linkage group which contains the phosphoglucomutase Pgm-1 locus.

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D.M. Tricoli, K.J. Carney, L.J. Nea, J.M. Palys, J.F. Reynolds, and C.E. Green

Many seed companies are using plant biotechnology as a valuable extension of conventional plant breeding with the goal of providing breeders with novel biological traits. The application of biotechnology allows scientists and breeders to make precise changes during the process of germplasm improvement. Many of the first improvements achieved using transgenic plants have involved the transfer of input traits. Some of these traits include, insect resistance, nematode resistance, disease resistance, and herbicide tolerance. For example, the insertion of a gene that produces the crystalline toxin from Bacillus thuringeinsis has led to the production of transgenic plants that are resistant to insects from the Order Lepidoptera. The transfer of coat protein genes from plant viruses has lead to the development of transgenic crops that are resistant to the virus from which the gene or genes were isolated. Various strategies have been developed that allow transgenic plants to tolerate applications of herbicides that allows for improved weed control. In addition to input traits, other strategies are now being used that are directed at improving output traits. These include such traits as enhanced shelf life, ripening control, altered oils, and superior processing characteristics. At Seminis Vegetable Seed Co., we are currently developing transgenic plants with enhanced input as well as output traits. We have an active program using pathogen derived genes to develop virus resistance cultivars in a range of crops including, tomato, cucurbits, and peppers. Using this approach, we have been able to develop plants with multiple virus resistance by transforming germplasm with constructs containing stacked genes. Seminis is currently marketing a hybrid squash variety with resistance to two major virus pathogens. Another major goal for Seminis is implementing biotechnology to improve various aspects of fruit quality including viscosity, color, softening, and shelf life. Through our collaboration with Zeneca we have developed a high viscosity tomato, which was produced by suppressing endogenous levels of polyglacturonase. This processed food product is currently on the market in the United Kingdom.

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R.L. Fery and J.A. Thies

The peanut root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne arenaria race 1) is potentially a major pest of pepper cultivars belonging to the species Capsicum chinense. Greenhouse tests were conducted to: 1) compare the level of resistance to the peanut root-knot nematode exhibited by the recently released C. chinense germplasm line PA-353 to that exhibited by the C. annuum cv. Carolina Cayenne; 2) to determine the inheritance of the resistance in the C. chinense germplasm line PA-353; and 3) to determine the genetic relationship between the resistance exhibited by the C. chinense germplasm line PA-353 and that exhibited by the C. annuum cv. Carolina Cayenne. The level of resistance exhibited by the C. chinense germplasm line PA-353 was equal to the high level of resistance of the C. annuum cv. Carolina Cayenne. Evaluation of parental, F1, F2, and backcross populations of the cross between the resistant C. chinense germplasm line PA-353 and the susceptible C. chinense accession PA-350 indicated that the resistance in C. chinense is conditioned by a single dominant gene. The F2 population of the interspecific cross between the resistant C. chinense germplasm line PA-353 and the resistant C. annuum cv. Carolina Cayenne did not segregate for resistance, indicating that the dominant resistance gene in C. chinense is likely allelic to or closely linked to a gene conditioning resistance in C. annuum. The availability of a simply inherited source of outstanding resistance makes breeding for peanut root-knot nematode resistance a viable objective in C. chinense breeding programs.

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Richard L. Fery and Judy A. Thies

(Treub) Chitwood]. The release of PA-559 will provide pepper breeders interested in developing both open-pollinated and F1 hybrid cultivars access to a near-cultivar quality parental line that is homozygous for the root-knot nematode resistance gene

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Richard L. Fery and Judy A. Thies

-knot nematode resistance gene into a ‘Pimiento L’-type genetic background. ‘Pimiento L’ is a root-knot nematode-susceptible, pimento-type cultivar that is widely grown in the southern states where it can produce good yields under high-temperature conditions. The

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Richard L. Fery and Judy A. Thies

-cultivar quality parental line that is homozygous for the southern root-knot nematode resistance gene. Origin In 1995, recurrent backcross breeding procedures were initiated to transfer the dominant southern root-knot nematode resistance gene from a Scotch Bonnet