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Charles E. Barrett, Lincoln Zotarelli, Lucas G. Paranhos, Peter Dittmar, Clyde W. Fraisse, and John VanSickle

irrigation that relies on large volumes of water ( Dukes et al., 2010 ) and often a shallow semi-impermeable soil layer. In a seepage system, the water table is perched on top of the semi-impermeable soil layer and raised to the crop root zone. This type of

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Gary E. Vallad, Kenneth L. Pernezny, Botond Balogh, Aimin Wen, Jose Francisco L. Figueiredo, Jeffrey B. Jones, Timur Momol, Rosa M. Muchovej, Nikol Havranek, Nadia Abdallah, Steve Olson, and Pamela D. Roberts

the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus -resistant cv. SecuriTY 28 were transplanted at 45-cm spacing to 6.4-m plots along 91.5-m-long, raised beds with 1.5-m center-to-center bed spacing. Beds were covered with a silver, virtually impermeable film mulch

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Clyde W. Fraisse, Zhengjun Hu, and Eric H. Simonne

under intensive fertilization and irrigation management using drip, overhead, or seepage irrigation systems ( Olson and Simonne, 2007 ). Seepage irrigation consists of maintaining an artificially higher water table above an impermeable soil layer found

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Mark Hoffmann, Husein A. Ajwa, Becky B. Westerdahl, Steven T. Koike, Mike Stanghellini, Cheryl Wilen, and Steven A. Fennimore

in the flat ground at a depth of 12 inches, with shanks spaced 30 inches apart. The total width of one pass was 11 ft. Fumigated soil was immediately covered with clear totally impermeable film (TIF), glued to a continuous sheet. Fumigants and TIF

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Yuliya A. Salanenka, Martin C. Goffinet, and Alan G. Taylor

cucumber seed envelope is impermeable to the nonionic, moderately lipophilic, fluorescent tracer, 7-amino-4-(trifluoromethyl) coumarin (coumarin 151) ( Salanenka and Taylor, 2008 ), except in the region that covers the radicle tip area ( Fig. 1A ). Tao and

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Ravneet K. Sandhu, Nathan S. Boyd, Shaun Sharpe, Zhengfei Guan, Qi Qiu, Tianyuan Luo, and Shinsuke Agehara

installed on the surface in the middle of the beds (Jain Irrigation Inc., Haines City, FL) with a flow rate of 0.95 L/min and emitters every 30 cm. The beds were covered with black, virtually impermeable film in 2016 and totally impermeable film in 2017

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Gretchen B. North and Evan A. Baker

hairs first appear ( Taiz and Zeiger, 2002 ). Further back from the tip, internal and external suberized cell layers (the endodermis and exodermis, respectively, and later the periderm) are said to make the root relatively impermeable to water ( Purves

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Kourosh Vahdati, Naser Lotfi, Bahman Kholdebarin, Darab Hassani, Reza Amiri, Mohammad Reza Mozaffari, and Charles Leslie

to simulate drought stress in vitro ( Pandey and Agarwal, 1998 ). Polyethylene glycol molecules (PEG 6000) are osmotically active, inert, nonionic, and virtually impermeable to plant cells and are frequently used to induce water stress and maintain

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James P. Gilreath and Bielinski M. Santos

58 Gilreath, J.P. Motis, T.N. Santos, B.M. 2005 Cyperus spp. control with reduced methyl bromide plus chloropicrin rates under virtually impermeable films in pepper Crop Protection 24 285 287 Holm, L.G. Plucknett, D.L. Pancho, J.V. Herberger, J

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P. Chris Wilson and Joseph P. Albano

landscape fabric underlain by polypropylene plastic, creating a water-impermeable surface that sloped toward concrete roadways. The concrete roadways were sloped to convey drainage water to an underground drainage sump system that was accessible through