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Martin M. Williams II

changed little over the last 80 years in the United States despite 6-fold yield gains ( Egli, 2015 ). The sink limitation has been largely overcome in grain corn by improving plant density tolerance (also known as crowding stress tolerance) and planting

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R. Tao, T. Ohkuma, M. Tamura, and A. Sugiura

Distribution of pollen diameter of Japanese persimmon cv. Zenjimaru (2n = 6x, × = 15) was determined using pollen grains hydrated with CPW solution supplemented with 0.9 M mannitol. Mean diameter of giant pollen grains (65 μm) was 1.3 times longer than that of normal pollen grains (50 μm). The occurrence of giant pollen was estimated to be about 5% of the pollen population. The hydrated giant pollen grains could be sorted out from normal pollen grains by filtering through a layer of nylon mesh (62 μm). Flow cytometric analysis of nuclear DNA content confirmed that giant pollen was unreduced 2n pollen. 2n giant pollen grains were pollinated to cn. Jiro (2n = 6x) callie and plantlets could be obtained from immature embyros excised from seeds 70 days after pollination.

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Rocheteau Dareus, Antonio Carlos Mota Porto, Mesfin Bogale, Peter DiGennaro, Carlene A. Chase, and Esteban Fernando Rios

fixation to cowpea: A strategy for improving grain yield in the semi-arid region of Brazil Biol. Fertil. Soils 38 333 339 10.1017/S0014479703001108 Matsui, T. Singh, B.B. 2003 Root characteristics in cowpea related to drought tolerance at the seedling stage

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Ricardo Goenaga, A. Graves Gillaspie Jr, and Adolfo Quiles

Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important grain legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable, and its dry beans provide 22% to 25% protein ( Goenaga et al., 2008 ; Murillo-Amador et al., 2006 ). Because of its

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Brian M. Schwartz, Ryan N. Contreras, Karen R. Harris-Shultz, Douglas L. Heckart, Jason B. Peake, and Paul L. Raymer

using an AxioCam MRm (Carl Zeiss MicroImaging GmbH) and processed using AxioVision FRET software Version 4.7.2 (Carl Zeiss MicroImaging GmbH). Morphological Measurements. The starch content of pollen grains from seedheads of ‘Sea Spray’ and 11-TSP-1

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S. Alan Walters

additional 22 to 34 kg·ha −1 N will need to be applied when small grain cover residues remain on the soil surface in NT vegetable systems. If additional N is not applied, cover crop mulch residues with high C:N ratios residing on the soil surface may reduce

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Weiping Zhong, Zhoujun Zhu, Fen Ouyang, Qi Qiu, Xiaoming Fan, and Deyi Yuan

appearing in the endothecial cells and more lipids appearing in the tapetal cells. ( M–O ) An anther at the late microspore stage. ( P ) Degraded chloroplast and deformed starch grains. ( Q–S ) An anther at the early two-cell pollen stage. ( T ) Cell plate

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Viviane de Oliveira Souza, Margarete Magalhães Souza, Alex-Alan Furtado de Almeida, Joedson Pinto Barroso, Alexandre Pio Viana, and Cláusio Antônio Ferreira de Melo

characteristics related to color were based on the Munsell Plant Tissue Color Chart ( Munsell, 1981 ). Pollen grains were collected from anthesis flowers, mounted on stubs on double-sided graphite adhesive tape, and placed in a desiccator for 3 d. The samples were

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Yuyu Wang, Faju Chen, Yubing Wang, Xiaoling Li, and Hongwei Liang

and formed embryonic callus tissue after 5 d of culture with a large amount of starch grain ( Fig. 3A ). In another case, proembryos (the red arrow labeling) initiated from the surface layer or internally from the embryonic calli, which had abundant

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Xiangguang Duan, Wei Liu, Xiaojing Wang, Lixia Zhang, Shuguang Liu, Lili Guo, Dalong Guo, and Xiaogai Hou

). Studies have shown that phosphorus can increase the yield of grain crops by ≈10% to 250%, increasing the economic yield and quality of crops such as cotton and tobacco ( Chen et al., 2016 ; Rouached et al., 2010 ). Phosphorus also aids in root development