Cayenne pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) is one of several chile pepper pod types grown in New Mexico. Other pepper pod types include long red mild, long green mild, paprika, and long green hot [ New Mexico Agricultural Statistics (NMAS), 2010
Mark E. Uchanski and Adam Blalock
Myeong Cheoul Cho*, Taek-Ryoun Kwon*, Tae-Hun Ryu*, Young Chae*, Seung-Ryong Cheong*, and Il-Gin Mok*
Genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) and non-GM chile pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv. `Subicho') were grown in an isolated GMO field to evaluate horticultural characteristics. Phosphinotricin acetyltransferase (bar gene), which has a function of herbicide-resistance in plant, was introduced into chile pepper plants using the protocol of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Thirty nine characteristics were evaluated, consisting of 14 qualitative, 18 quantitative and 7 other characters. The evaluations were achieved by visual assessment for qualitative characteristics and numerical measurement for quantitative ones. The GMHT and non-GM plants did not differ in the 39 characteristics tested. Pollen viability and germination rate were not significant different between the GMHT plants and the non-GM plants. These results indicated that genetic transformation of bar gene into the chile pepper did not affect those horticultural characteristics and pollen viability.
Phytophthora capsici is a serious soilborne pathogen in chile pepper [Capsicum annuum L.] in New Mexico, and has been shown to spread under high soil moisture conditions and cause losses in a wide array of crops worldwide. This study was conducted to assess whether soil water saturation predisposes chile pepper to infection by P. capsici. Potted chile pepper plants of `Criollo de Morelos 334' (`CM334') and `New Mexico 6-4' (`NM6-4'), resistant and susceptible to P. capsici, respectively, were subjected to soil water saturation conditions (saturated and nonsaturated) for 3 and 6 days at two growth stages (six- to eight-leaf stage and one- to four-flower bud stage) prior to being inoculated or noninoculated with zoospores of P. capsici. Regardless of growth stage, no disease symptoms developed in `CM334' grown either under saturated or nonsaturated soil conditions at any of the two periods (3 or 6 days) of soil water saturation. In `NM6-4', disease symptoms consisting of stem necrosis, defoliation, and wilting were expressed. Plant growth stage at inoculation had a significant effect on disease severity (P < 0.0001). However, the response of `NM6-4' to P. capsici at each growth stage under saturated soil conditions was similar to that under nonsaturated conditions regardless of the period of saturation (P = 0.09). These results indicate that soil water saturation does not exert a significant predispositional effect on infection of chile pepper by P. capsici.
Anne K. Carter and Roseann A. Stevens
Thermoinhibition has been observed in chile (Capsicum annuum L.) transplants grown in greenhouses in southern climates. Hormones have been used successfully as a treatment for thermoinhibition in other vegetable crops. This experiment examined the effects of Ethrel and Release as treatments to improve germination in chile seeds germinated at a supraoptimal temperature. Seeds of `Jalapeno M' were soaked in solutions of Ethrel at 1.75, 3.0, 7.0, or 10.5 mM concentration or Release at 0.50, 1.0, 2.0, or 3.0 mM concentration, or 16 different combinations of the two growth regulators. The seeds were soaked in the treatment solutions for 40 hours at 25°C. A H2O-soaked and a non-soaked control were also included. Afterwards, the seeds were rinsed, dried, then germinated in 25°C or 40°C incubators. At 25°C, all treatments reached 98% germination or better after 10 days, indicating that none of the treatments were detrimental to germination. At 40C, germination percentages amongtreatments ranged from 0% for the nonsoaked control to 90% for a Release–Ethrel combination. Generally, the combination treatments resulted in germination percentages higher than either Ethrel or Release used alone. Results of these tests in petri dishes indicate the possibility of growth regulators being used to overcome thermoinhibition in chile. A greenhouse study is underway.
Robert F. Bevacqua and Dawn M. VanLeeuwen
Chile pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) yields are highly variable and are strongly influenced by disease and weather. The goal of two field experiments was to evaluate crop management factors, especially planting date, that could contribute to improved and more consistent crop production. Current practice in New Mexico is to direct seed the crop from 13 to 27 Mar. In the first experiment, chile pepper was direct seeded on three planting dates, 13, 20, and 27 Mar. 2000, without or with a fungicide treatment of pentachloronitrobenzene and mefenoxam for the control of damping off. The results indicate planting date had no effect on stand establishment or yield. Fungicide treatment, significantly reduced stand, but had no effect on yield. In the second experiment, chile pepper was direct seeded on six planting dates, 13, 20, 27 Mar. and 3, 10, 17, Apr. 2001, with or without an application of phosphorus fertilizer, P at 29.4 kg·ha-1, banded beneath the seed row. During the growing season, this experimental planting suffered, as did commercial plantings in New Mexico, from high mortality and stunting due to beet curly top virus, a disease transmitted by the beet leafhopper. The results indicate planting date had a significant effect on crop performance. The best stand establishment and highest yield were associated with the earliest planting date, 13 Mar. This date also resulted in the least viral disease damage. Phosphorus fertilizer had no effect on stand establishment or yield. Chemical names used: pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB); (R)-2-[(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-methoxyacetylamino]-propionic acid methyl ester (mefenoxam).
Stephanie J. Walker, Paul Funk, Israel Joukhadar, Tom Place, Charles Havlik, and Bradley Tonnessen
The New Mexico State University (NMSU) Agricultural Experiment Station announces the release of ‘NuMex Odyssey’, a New Mexican–type chile pepper ( Capsicum annuum ) cultivar that is efficient for mechanical harvest of green fruit. This cultivar is
Ines Vergara, E. Schalscha B., I. Ruiz, and E. F. Wallihan
A survey of orange and lemon orchards in the major citrus growing region of Chile revealed deficiencies of N, Zn, and Mn, which are common in citrus around the world, plus borderline deficiency of Mg and apparently serious deficiencies of P and S. It is suggested that field fertility studies should be designed to test interaction among N, P, and S in order to achieve optimum fertility levels and to provide information on the effect of one element on the optimum leaf concentration of another.
Donald J. Cotter and George W. Dickerson
Mature red chile fruit [Capsicum annuum (L.)] were harvested over 3 years at 2 locations in southern New Mexico to determine the effects of harvest date on yield and color. Yields peaked in late October or early November and then declined linearly through December or January. Declines were correlated highly with fewer marketable pods harvested due to detachment or discoloration. The detachment of mature red pods over the test period was affected differentially by cultivar. Color (in ASTA units) varied from good commercial levels to substandard ones between years, but the color of late-harvested pods was normally equal to or better than that from earlier-harvested fruit.
Chris A. Martin, Jean C. Stutz, and Robert W. Roberson
Effects of VAM fungal inoculum, Glomus intraradices Schenk & Smith, on the growth of Chilean mesquite in containers were investigated as part of a nursery container system for production of xeric trees. Seedling liners of Chilean mesquite were transplanted into 27-liter containers filled with a 3 pine bark : 1 peat moss : 1 sand medium. Before transplanting, 50% of the trees were band-inoculated at a depth of 8 to 12 cm below the growth medium surface with 35 g per container of Glomus intradices (Nutrilink, NPI, Salt Lake City, UT), approximately 1,000 spores g-1. All trees were top-dressed with 15 g Osmocote 18N-2.6P-9.9K (Grace-Sierra, Milpitas, CA) and 3 g Micromax (Grace-Sierra, Milpitas, CA) fertilizers and grown in a fiberglass greenhouse under 50% light exclusion. After 4 months, all inoculated tree root systems were colonized, and the percent infection was 47%. Noninoculated trees remained nonmycorrhizal. There were no differences in height, total shoot length, shoot dry weight, or root dry weight between inoculated and non-inoculated trees; however, total root length and specific root length of inoculated trees were less than those of noninoculated trees. These results suggest that the VAM fungi altered the root architecture of inoculated trees such that root systems of these trees had thicker roots with fewer fine roots elongating into the growth medium profile.
J.A. Anchondo, M.M. Wall, V.P. Gutschick, and D.W. Smith
Growth and yield responses of `New Mexico 6-4' and `NuMex R Naky' chile pepper [Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum (Longum Group)] to four Fe levels were studied under sand culture. A balanced nutrient solution (total nutrient concentration <2 mmol·L-1) was recirculated continuously to plants potted in acid-washed sand from the seedling stage to red fruit harvest. Plants received 1, 3, 10 or 30 μm Fe as ferric ethylenediamine di-(o-hydroxyphenyl-acetate). Plant growth was determined by leaf area, specific leaf area [(SLA), leaf area per unit dry weight of leaves], instantaneous leaf photosynthetic rates, and dry matter partitioning. Low Fe (1 or 3 μm Fe) in the nutrient solution was associated with lower relative growth rates (RGR), increased SLA, and higher root to shoot ratios (3 μm Fe plants only) at final harvest. High Fe levels (10 or 30 μm Fe) in the nutrient solution were associated with an increased yield of red fruit and total plant dry matter. RGR of low-Fe young chile plants was reduced before any chlorotic symptoms appeared.