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Carl E. Mitchell and John A. Barden

In 1992, branches on `Triple Red Delicious'/M.7 were girdled. A factorial of treatments (control, 9mm girdle-uncovered, 9mm girdle-covered) and timings: 0, 15, 30, 60, & 90 days after full bloom(DAFB) was used. With `Golden Delicious'1M.7, branch treatments were: control, score, and 6mm, 9mm, & 12 mm covered girdles, each applied at 0, 15, 30, & 60 DAFB. In 1993, treatments were: control, 9mm uncovered girdle, & pruning saw cut; each was applied 0, 7, 14, and 21 DAFB. Each girdle was a complete ring of bark; scoring was a knife cut through the bark.

The 2 cultivars responded similarly to girdling. Effects were greatest to treatments at 0-30 DAFB, and included increased fruit set or retention, temporary suppression of vegetative growth, and increased levels of soluble solids in the fruit. Treatments affected starch levels in the fruit and flesh firmness, but these effects were inconsistent.

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L. Eric Hinesley and Layne K. Snelling

Dormant branches of Fraser fir [Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.] Christmas trees were subjected to single doses of gamma radiation at levels ranging from 0 to 5.0 kGy (0 to 500 kRad). Significant needle loss resulted at doses ≥0.10 kGy and increased with radiation intensity. Irradiation discolored foliage and accelerated drying. Irradiation does not appear to be a viable way to meet insect quarantine requirements on cut Fraser fir Christmas trees.

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Yang-Key Na, Byeong-Sam Kim, Kyong-Ju Choi, Young Kim, and Wol-Soo Kim*

Recently, the acreages Japanese apricot have been increased for being known of the medical functions. However, the increase of tree height, overgrowing trees and light deficiency at the bottom of canopy induced the poor fruit quality and higher labor charges. This study was conducted to assess the effects of training time, angle and length of water sprout on tree growth, the shoot-curbing, and the occurrence of new shoot for 2 years. Water sprouts were trained on 5, and 25 June, and 15 July with three varying angles of 30°, 45° and 60°, and cut at three lengths (50, 80, 110_) after harvest. Compared to control, the treatment on June 25 showed the highest values of 76%, 82% of internode and shoot length respectiely. In the treatment of training angle, shoot length was 71% in both 30° and 45° but heavily limited to 36% in 60° with comparing to control. The occurrence of shoots showed 18.1, 24.6, and 36.3 in treatment of 50, 80 and 110 cm, respectively, and in 80 cm, the number of shoot with diameter more than 0.5 mm, which is suitable for bearing mother branch, was higher. The best result was obtained in method of branch training with 45° and heading-back 80 cm at height on 15 June for the renewal of lateral branch.

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Eugene J. Hague and Denise Neilsen

A system for the rapid production of Ottawa-3 (0.3) rootstock (Malus domestica Borkh.) and branched apple nursery stock in the greenhouse is described. The time required for production of a finished' tree, ≈1 year, compared favorably with traditional methods. Cuttings derived from tissue-cultured 0.3 rootstocks rooted well (up to 94% success rate), and the rooting effect persisted in cuttings from tissuecultured rootstocks grown for 1 year in the field. All combinations of two levels of N and P in a Long Ashton nutrient solution were applied weekly to pots containing either tissue-cultured rootstocks or cuttings. The growth rate of tissue-cultured rootstocks exceeded that of cuttings. The growth rate of both sources of rootstocks increased in response to added P and N. Growth of scion shoots (`Royal Gala') increased in response to N. Branch production of `Royal Gala' was greater for trees with the higher P and N rates. Trees on tissue-cultured rootstocks had more branches than those on cuttingderived roostocks at the higher level of N.

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Michael L. Parker and Eric Young

Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars Spur Galagored (#42) (`Gala'), Jonagored (`Morren's'), and Red Fuji (B.C. #2) (`Fuji') on Mark rootstock and `Gala' on Malling 26 EMLA (M.26) and Malling 9 EMLA (M.9) were planted in the four major apple-production regions of western North Carolina. Three leader management techniques, weak leader renewal, snaked leader, and heading with partial terminal leaf removal (H + PTLR), were applied to five-tree plots beginning the spring after planting. Leader management techniques, weak leader renewal or H + PTLR, which involved dormant pruning or vegetation removal and an interruption in vegetative vigor, reduced total branching and yield during the third year. Fumigation with methyl bromide increased lateral branching and yield in the third year. No significant yield differences were detected for `Gala' grown on M.9, M.26, or Mark rootstocks. Trees grown in the most western region of the state, Haywood County, had smaller trees and reduced yields compared to the other three regions due to a shorter growing season.

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L. Corelli Grappadelli, A.N. Lakso, and J.A. Flore

The partitioning of photosynthates labeled by 14CO2 in exposed and shaded `Empire' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) branches was examined at 1, 3, 5, and 10 weeks after bloom. Extension shoots, nonfruiting spurs, or fruiting spurs were labeled separately to examine which shoot types exported to the fruit at each time. The general partitioning patterns were observed with autoradiography, while label accumulation in fruit was determined by oxidation and scintillation counting. At each treatment time, half of the branches was preconditioned with artificial shade (to 35% full light) for 48 hours before labeling and returned to the shade for a 2-day translocation period. One and 3 weeks after bloom, extension shoots showed little export to fruit; nonfruiting and vigorous fruiting spurs exported label to weak spurs and extension shoot tips. Shade had no major effect on partitioning patterns at 1 and 10 weeks, but essentially eliminated export from extension shoots at 3 weeks and greatly reduced export to fruit 5 weeks after bloom, as observed on the autoradiograms. At 5 weeks after bloom, the shading effect was equal to a 2-week delay in export. By 10 weeks after bloom, all shoot types were exporting most of the 14C fixed to fruit. The photosynthate support of the fruit before fruit set seemed to strongly depend on the spur canopy, especially when the extension shoots were exposed to low light.

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Shi-Ying Wang

Five Wave™ petunias, i.e., `Purple Wave™', `Pink Wave™', `Misty Lilac Wave™', and `Rose Wave™', and two hedgaflora petunias, i.e., `Dramatica Cherry™', and `Dramatica Hot Pink™', were investigated to determine the effects of plant growth regulators on plant size, branching, and flowering. Plant regulator treatments consisted of daminozide (B-Nine) spray two times at 7500 ppm, Paclobutrazol (Bonzi) spray two times at 30 ppm, paclobutrazol drench at 5 ppm, paclobutrazol drench at 5 ppm plus spray at 30 ppm, and ethephone (Florel) spray two times at 500 ppm. Plant diameter and central stem height were controlled effectively through daminozide spray and paclobutrazol drench. Plant branching was promoted by ethephone and daminozide. However, time to flowering was delayed significantly in the ethephone treatment. The size of the first flower responded to plant growth regulators negatively. The different responses to growth regulators among different types of petunias and different varieties in the same petunia type will be discussed based on the current trial and other separated experiments.

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Thomas J. Banko and Marcia A. Stefani

Russian sage (Perovskia atriplicifolia) grown in a pine bark medium in 1-gal containers were sheared to a height of 15 cm on 20 June 1997. One day later the plants were treated with foliar sprays of Florel (ethephon) at 0, 500, or 1000 ppm. One week later, sprays of B-Nine (daminozide, 5000 ppm) or Sumagic (uniconazole, 15 ppm) were applied to some of the plants previously treated with Florel, or previously nontreated. Three weeks after initial treatments, the Florel (500 and 1000 ppm) and the Sumagic treatments, applied individually, reduced plant height by 26%. The B-Nine treatment reduced height by 18%. Combination treatments (Florel followed by Sumagic or Florel followed by B-Nine) provided additional height control Florel at 500 or 1000 ppm significantly increased branching of Perovskia. Additional treatments with B-Nine or Sumagic had little effect on this response. Florel delayed flowering by ≈7 to 10 days.

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Tadeusz Jacyna

Nursery trees of new, promising apple selections [NY-75334-35 (A), NY-75414-1 (B), and NY-75413-30 (C)] from the Geneva breeding program exhibit a distinct apical dominant growth pattern characterized by poor lateral-shoot formation (feathering). To induce feathering, the trees were foliar-treated singly or sequentially with various concentrations of Promalin (1.8%w/w GA4+7 + 1.8%w/w 6BAP) and Accel (0.18% w/w GA4+7 + 1.8% w/w 6BAP), by themselves and in combination. Regardless of branching agent, concentration, and type of application, treated trees, as compared to the control, on average, induced 11.3 vs. 2.2, 6.6 vs. 0.4, and 6.6 vs. 2.0 feathers/tree for selections A, B, and C, respectively. In most instances, higher concentrations of both chemicals induced more feathers than lower concentrations. Tree height and caliper were less affected than lateral-shoot production.

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Mark J. Bassett

The inheritance of an induced mutant for spindly branch and male sterility (SBMS) was investigated in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in F2 and backcross populations. The results support the hypothesis that the mutant is controlled by a single recessive gene. Extensive breeding work with SBMS, involving several thousand F2 progeny, produced no recombinant of the types expected if two closely linked genes controlled the character. Therefore, a single pleiotropic gene apparently controls SBMS. Allelism tests demonstrated that SBMS is allelic with sb but not with sb-2 and sb-3. The gene symbol sb ms is proposed for SBMS because it is a new allele at sb, with the order of dominance being Sb > sb > sb ms. Various ways to exploit the new mutant for marked male sterility are discussed.