In response to a mail survey of the landscape maintenance and lawn care (LM-LC) industry in metropolitan Atlanta, we learned that 76% of respondents fertilized lawns and turf and 68% fertilized ornamental beds. Less than one-fourth of those who provided fertilization services offered an organic fertility option; for those who reported an organic option, an average of 25% of their residential customers used such a service. Complete fertilizers (N-P2O5-K2O), ammonium nitrate, urea, and N solutions were the products applied by most respondents. Average amounts of N per application were ≈1.5 lb/1000 ft2 on lawns and 1.1 lb/1000 ft2 on ornamentals. Of firms that provide fertilization services, 88% use a predetermined application schedule, whereas 88% use visual observation and 69% use soil testing to guide fertilizer management. Only 5% reported using tissue analysis as a fertilizer management strategy. Nitrogen fertilizers were applied most frequently in the spring, with nearly equal amounts applied in summer and fall. Phosphorus was applied most commonly in the fall or spring. Relatively few firms reported applying significant amounts of either N or P in winter. Most respondents indicated that they received adequate information about fertilizers, but few received information about organic fertilization. Commercial sales representatives and trade magazines were cited most often as sources of information; university specialists were the least-cited formal source of information concerning fertilization. We have suggested some research and educational issues to be addressed based on these results.
Reuben B. Beverly, Wojciech Florkowski, and John M. Ruter
Bielinski M. Santos, John W. Scott, and Maricruz Ramírez-Sánchez
‘Tasti-Lee’™ (‘Fla. 8153’) is the first tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) released in Florida exclusively for the premium specialty market, with characteristic superior flavor and elevated lycopene concentration. Research was conducted to determine the appropriate nitrogen (N) fertilization and in-row distances for ‘Tasti-Lee’ tomato and thus improving the opportunities for successful adoption for this cultivar. Three N fertilization programs and two in-row distances were tested. Total N rates (204, 239, and 274 lb/acre) were the result of the combination of 50 lb/acre of N during prebedding plus each of the following drip-applied N fertilization programs: 1) 1.5 and 2.0 lb/acre per day from 1 to 4 weeks after transplanting (WAT) and 5 to 12 WAT, respectively; 2) 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 lb/acre per day during 1 to 2 WAT, 3 to 4 WAT, and 5 to 12 WAT; and 3) 1.5, 2.5, and 3.0 lb/acre per day during 1 to 2 WAT, 3 to 4 WAT, and 5 to 12 WAT, respectively. In-row distances were 18 or 24 inches between plants, providing 5808 and 4356 plants/acre. Early and total marketable yields of ‘Tasti-Lee’ tomato were influenced by in-row distances and N fertilization programs, but not by their interaction. The highest early marketable fruit yield was found in plots treated with the highest N rate among fertilization programs (+6%), and in plots planted 18 inches apart (+7%) in comparison with the lowest N rate and the 24-inch spacing. Tomato plots treated with the highest N rate (274 lb/acre) resulted in the largest total marketable yield (+8%). Among the in-row distances, when plants were transplanted 18 inches apart, tomato total marketable yield increased by 18% compared with 24 inches between plants.
Rafael Fernández-Cañero, José Ordovás, and Miguel Ángel Herrera Machuca
Spain has undergone a period of uncontrolled urban expansion in a relatively short time-span, affecting people's quality of life in negative ways with significant impacts on the environment and land resources such as water and energy. Many new residential areas have low-density development, based on single-family houses with private gardens. These gardens are usually relatively small in size, but when considered as a whole, they make a substantial contribution to urban green spaces and have an important impact on the local environment. Although this includes a large variety of benefits, gardens demand a significant quantity of resources, including irrigation water, which is also important and should be taken into account. This paper analyzes features and management practices in domestic gardens, their relationships to garden design, and the attitudes of owners with regard to more sustainable alternatives. In addition, the main features of private gardens are examined. For this study, in-person interviews were conducted with homeowners who possess domestic gardens in the region of Aljarafe in southern Spain. The features of the gardens surveyed proved to be highly variable and related to several factors, such as the area of the gardens. Results seem to indicate that owners are reluctant to implement measures to lower water consumption in garden irrigation, apparently because of a lack of knowledge regarding more sustainable design alternatives. Homeowners who had prior knowledge of the principles of xeriscaping were significantly more open to applying these principles in practical ways.
L. Carolina Medina, Thomas A. Obreza, Jerry B. Sartain, and Robert E. Rouse
field performance. However, government regulatory agencies are now investigating if using CRF to fertilize citrus could be considered a best management practice (BMP), mainly in the central Florida ridge area where groundwater pollution is a concern
Maria C. Morera, Paul F. Monaghan, Michael D. Dukes, Ondine Wells, and Stacia L. Davis
likelihood that homeowners would continue using them. Promotion efforts may be most effective by emphasizing the economic benefits of investing in smart irrigation controllers and by disseminating best management practices—both to end-users and contractors
Dewayne L. Ingram, Charles R. Hall, and Joshua Knight
others should be appealing to environmentally conscious consumers ( Yue et al., 2016 ). Materials and Methods A model system for producing poinsettias in 15.2-cm containers was developed to reflect the current best management practices in the floriculture
Charles E. Barrett, Lincoln Zotarelli, Lucas G. Paranhos, Peter Dittmar, Clyde W. Fraisse, and John VanSickle
management practices, recent droughts, growth in state population, climate change uncertainties, and saltwater intrusion, demand for improved crop management systems that can increase production, conserve water, and reduce the potential for nutrient loss has
John C. Majsztrik, Elizabeth W. Price, and Dennis M. King
greenhouse and nursery production systems. Univ. Maryland, College Park, PhD Diss Majsztrik, J. Lea-Cox, J.D. 2013 Water quality regulations in the Chesapeake Bay: Working to more precisely estimate nutrient loading rates and incentivize best management
Yan Chen, Regina P. Bracy, Allen D. Owings, and Joey P. Quebedeaux
Use of slow-release fertilizers or CRF is being recommended to the landscape service industry as a best management practice ( Florida Yards & Neighborhoods, 2006 ; Louisiana Yards & Neighborhoods, 2007 ). Benefits of using CRF include improved
Jacob H. Shreckhise, James S. Owen Jr., Matthew J. Eick, Alexander X. Niemiera, James E. Altland, and Brian E. Jackson
, 1984 ; Paradelo et al., 2017 ; Yeager and Wright, 1982 ). The best management practice ( Bilderback et al., 2013a ) of using polymer- or resin-coated controlled-release fertilizers (CRFs) is, in part, used to reduce P leaching and runoff relative to