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Desire Djidonou, Zhifeng Gao, and Xin Zhao

techniques, including automation of the grafting operation, may also help lower the cost of grafted transplant production ( Lee et al., 2010 ). Table 1. Estimated costs of nongrafted ‘Florida 47’ tomato transplants and ‘Florida 47’ transplants grafted onto

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Meltem Bayraktar

subcultured at short intervals. Agar products are expensive, making automation difficult and cleaning agar out of small culture containers requires intense labor. Moreover, the filling, cleaning, and handling of a large number of small containers constitute

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Seth D. Wannemuehler, James J. Luby, Chengyan Yue, David S. Bedford, R. Karina Gallardo, and Vicki A. McCracken

(i.e., lower reagent costs, more automation, or more efficient workers, etc.), ranging from 10%, 25%, and 50% cost reduction based on breeder inputs The second sensitivity analysis explored the impacts of reduced labor inputs for maintaining seedling

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Kristine M. Lang, Ajay Nair, and Alexander G. Litvin

managed by computer automation (Argus, Surrey, BC, Canada). The study was repeated two times in 2017: from 20 Jan. to 3 Mar. and from 3 Mar. to 13 Apr. Healing chamber design and management. The grafted transplants were grown in 606 standard inserts (STI

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Rhuanito Soranz Ferrarezi, Sue K. Dove, and Marc W. van Iersel

labor ( USDA, 2010 ), and technological innovations, which reduce labor dependency, can help growers stay competitive. Automation can be achieved using technologies such as robots, sensors, and computer-controlled systems, which may also improve plant

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Xiaoli Wang, Zhiyong Wang, Li Liao, Xinyi Zhang, and Changjun Bai

cannot detect whether an allele is heterozygous or homologous. Although RFLPs are codominant, the procedure is complex and requires high-quality DNA, so it is not conducive to automation for a large number of samples ( Song et al., 2014 ). Therefore, SSRs

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Menahem Edelstein, Roni Cohen, Meital Elkabetz, Shimon Pivonia, Ami Maduel, Tom Sadeh-Yarok, and M. Ben-Hur

, automation Sci. Hort. 127 93 105 Martinez-Rodriguez, M.M. Estan, M.T. Moyano, E. Garcia-Albellan, J.O. Flores, F.B. Campos, J.F. Al-Azzawi, M.J. Flowers, T.J. Bolarin, M.C. 2008 The effectiveness of grafting to improve salt tolerance in tomato when an

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T. Auxt Baugher, J.R. Schupp, K.M. Lesser, and K. Hess-Reichard

requirement and achieving efficient crop load management via automation, and the overall production goal of high yields with optimal size and quality, are mutually inclusive. Literature cited Baugher, T.A. Schupp, J. Miller, S. Harsh, M. Lesser, K. Reichard, K

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Pedro Domínguez, María T. Ariza, Juan J. Medina, Berta de los Santos, Manuel Chamorro, José M. López-Aranda, and Carmen Soria

Total phenol analysis: Automation and comparison with manual methods Amer. J. Enol. Vitic. 28 49 55 Soria, C. Sánchez-Sevilla, J.F. Ariza, M.T. Gálvez, J. López-Aranda, J.M. Medina, J.J. Miranda, L. Arjona, A. Bartual, R. 2008 ‘Amiga’ strawberry

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Alan W. Hodges, Charles R. Hall, Bridget K. Behe, and Jennifer H. Dennis

in the Green industry to improve the efficiency of water applications in the nursery and/or greenhouse ( Mathers et al., 2005 ). The other practices examined in this article pertain to adoption of new technologies. First, the tradeoff of automation