Growth of honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos var. inermis Willd.) seedlings was studied during exposure to reduced osmotic potential (ψπ) and high temperature in the root zone. Half-sib plants were cultured in solution. Root-zone temperature was increased from ambient (23C) to 35C for 0, 6, 12, or 24 hours·day -l. Within each temperature treatment, solution ψπ of -0.05, – 0.10, and – 0.20 MPa were maintained by additions of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 8000. Root and shoot dry weights decreased with increasing exposure to 35C among seedlings in -0.05-MPa solution and decreased for seedlings in - 0.10- and - 0.20-MPa solutions in all temperature regimes. Growth of epicotyls displayed similar trends, but epicotyls of plants in -0.20-MPa solution were longest with 6 hours·day-l at 35C. Significant interactions between effects of temperature and osmotic regimes indicated that water-stressed honey locust seedlings are relatively insensitive to elevated root-zone temperatures. However, related studies showed that PEG caused reductions in growth that could not be explained by decreases in ψπ and suggested that responses of honey locust to PEG differed from those when drought was imposed by withholding irrigation in an aggregate medium.
William R. Graves and Lorna C. Wilkins
Cynthia Crossan and Wallace Pill
Seeds of purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench were osmotically primed (OSP) in polyethylene glycol (PEG) or matrically primed in expanded vermiculite No. 5 (solid matrix priming, SMP). With both OSP or SHP at 15C, 10-day exposure to -0.4 MPa resulted in lowered time to 50% germination (T,) and higher germination percentage than shorter exposure (5-day) or lower water potential (-1.5 MPa). SMP- and OSP-seeds performed similarly in a greenhouse trial, resulting in 80% and 34% seedling emergence at 23C and 37C, respectively, compared to 58% and 27% for non-primed seeds. Seedling emergence rate and synchrony from primed seeds were greater than from non-primed seeds at both temperatures. An incubator study established that adding 10-4M GA3 and 10 mN ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) to the PEG or vermiculite resulted in lower T50 and higher germination percentage than priming without these growth regulators. A further incubator study established that less-expensive trade products (Pro-Gibb Pius 2X) and Florel could substitute for the reagent-grade growth regulators. Seeds primed in PEG or vermiculite containing 10-4M GA3 from Pro-Gibb Plus 2X and 10 mM ethephon from Floral had lower T50 and higher percentage emergence in a greenhouse trial than seeds primed without growth regulators. Compared to the non-primed seeds, these treated seeds had 29% greater seedling emergence and 61% less time to 50% emergence.
W.G. Pill, J.J. Frett, and D.C. Morneau
Seeds of `Ace 55' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and `Mary Washington' asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) were primed in -0.8 MPa (20C, 1 week, dark) polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG), synthetic seawater (INO), or NaNO3. Primed seeds of both species had a higher percentage of germination than untreated seeds only at 10C in nonsaline (– 0.05 MPa) medium, while in saline medium (– 0.6 MPa) priming increased the percentage of germination of tomato seeds at 10 and 30C, and of primed asparagus seeds at 10 and 20C. Sodium nitrate was superior to PEG or IN0 for priming tomato seeds since it resulted in fewer days to 50% germination and higher final germination percentage in saline media at all temperatures. IN0 was a satisfactory alternative to PEG or NaNO3 for priming asparagus seeds since priming agent had little or no effect on germination. Seedling emergence from NaNO3-primed seeds of both species sown in a seedbed provided saline (– 0.39 MPa) irrigation was faster than from untreated dry-sown seeds. In the saline seedbed, priming increased final emergence percentage (FEP) from asparagus seeds, provided they were not subsequently dried, but had no effect on the percentage emergence of tomato seeds. Fluid-drilling primed or germinated seeds of either species enhanced seedling establishment in the saline seedbed by reducing time to 50% emergence and/or increasing FEP relative to primed, dried-b&k or untreated seeds.
A. C. Guedes and D. J. Cantliffe
The effects of water or 1% K3PO4 priming at 5°, 15° and 25°C for short durations on ‘Minetto’ lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seed germination at high temperatures were studied. Germination percentage and rate at 35° of seeds primed in K3PO4 were significantly higher than that of seeds soaked in water. Aeration improved the results of priming at 15° and 25°. A priming temperature of 15° was generally best. The effects of light during priming of ‘Mesa 659’, ‘Minetto’ and ‘Ithaca’ seeds in water, K3PO4, polyethylene glycol (PEG) or PEG + K3PO4 solutions at 15° for 6 or 9 hr and drying methods for primed seeds were also studied. Imbibition rates were higher with K3PO4. Primed seeds germinated more rapidly at 35° with K3PO4 alone or in combination with PEG. Air drying of primed seeds was better than oven drying. Seed priming in light increased germination percentage and rate of ‘Minetto’ and ‘Ithaca’, although neither cultivar is photosensitive.
Curt R. Rom*, Zimian Niu, and Vikramjit Bajwa
A strategy of chemical crop load control has been to use chemical desiccants to prevent fertilization and cause fruitlet drop. However, little is known of the solution characteristics that reduce pollen viability, inhibit pollen germination and growth, and cause pistil damage. This project was established to determine the solution characteristics effecting those results. Apple pollen was dispersed on germination media mixed with PEG (MW 10,000) to attain osmotic tensions from 0 to -5.0 MPa to evaluate effect on pollen germination and growth. Similarly, apple pollen was dispersed on germination adjusted to a range of pH from 2.3 to 12.0 with acids and NaOH. Excised apple pistils were place on filter paper supports saturated with solutions with osmotic tension adjusted by PEG in the range of 0 to -5.0 M Pa, and pH from 3.0 to 12.0. Solutions of osmotic tension in the range of 0 to -5.0 M Pa were applied by brush to intact pistils on apple flowers in a greenhouse and under field conditions. Pollen germination decreased with increasing osmotic tension and no pollen germinated at tensions greater than 4.0. Pistils, either excised or intact, had significant desiccation and death when treated with solution osmotic tensions greater than 4.0. Fruit set of individual spurs of the cvs Jonagold, Gala, and Arkansas Black were highly related to pistil survival 48 h after treatment with PEG. When solution osmotic potential exceeded 4.0, fruit set was reduced by more than 80%. Pollen germination was reduced by more than 50% at solution pH below or equal to 4.0 and greater than 10.0 and completely inhibited at solution pH below or equal to 3.0 and greater than 11.0. Similar results were observed for excised pistil and intact viability.
Warley M. Nascimento, Daniel J. Cantliffe, and Donald J. Huber
Temperatures above 30 °C may delay or inhibit germination of most of commercial lettuce cultivars. Ethylene enhances lettuce seed germination at high temperatures. Enzyme-mediated degradation of endosperm cell walls appears to be a crucial factor for lettuce germination at high temperature. The galactomannan polysaccharides in lettuce endosperm cell wall are mobilized by endomannanase. The role of endo-mannanase during germination of lettuce seeds at high temperature (35 °C) and the possible role of etlene in enzyme regulation were investigated. Seeds of thermotolerant (`Everglades'-EVE) and thermosensitive (`Dark Green Boston'-DGB) lettuce genotypes were incubated at 20 and 35 °C in water, 10 mM of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), or 20 mM of silver thiosulphate (STS). Also, seeds were primed in an aerated solution of polyethylene glycol (PEG), or PEG+ACC, or PEG+STS. Untreated seeds germinated 100% at 20 °C. At 35 °C, EVE germinated 100%, whereas DGB germinated only 33%. Seed priming or adding ACC during imbibition increased germination of DGB to 100% at 35 °C. Adding STS during imbibition led to a decrease in germination at 35%C in EVE and completely inhibited germination of DGB. Priming with STS led to reduced germination at 35%C of both genotypes. EVE produced more ethylene than DGB during germination at high temperature. Providing ACC either during priming or during germination led to an increase in endo-mannanase activity, whereas STS inhibited mannanase activity. Higher endo-mannana activity was observed in EVE than DGB seeds. The results suggest that ethylene might overcome the inhibitory effect of high temperature in thermosensitive lettuce seeds via weakening of endosperm due to increased endo-mannanase activity.
Norman K. Lownds, Larry S. Kennedy, and Carl E. Sams
Rapid cycling brassica (RCB) plants, because of their short life cycle and ease of growth under laboratory conditions, offer a valuable tool for studying Brassica nutrition. We have been particularly interested in B nutrition in Brassica and, therefore, a hydroponic system was developed to accurately deliver micronutrient concentrations to RCB plants. RCB plants were supported in predrilled holes in the lids of brown 1-L plastic containers. Nutrients were supplied by spraying a modified Hoagland's solution onto the plant roots as they developed inside the containers. This system provided adequate solution aeration for plant growth and allowed analysis of both plant shoots and roots. RCB seeds were pregerminated for radicle emergence, then placed in the holes in the plastic container lids. The effect of B nutrient concentration on B uptake was examined using nutrient solutions containing 0.08, 0.02 and 0.00 ppm added B. Leaf B contents were 139.5, 26.1, and 7.1 g·g–1 for plants grown in 0.08, 0.02 and 0.00 ppm added B, respectively. Effects of drought stress on B uptake and distribution were studied by adjusting nutrient solution osmotic potential using polyethylene glycol (PEG) 8000. PEG-induced drought, (osmotic potential –0.1 MPa) reduced leaf and root B content ≈50% compared to plants grown in nutrient solution only (–0.05 MPa). Boron content in the shoots and pods, however, was not affected by PEG-induced drought stress. These results suggest that this system provides a reliable tool for studying nutrition and drought stress effects using RCB plants.
Anthony M. Haigh and E.W.R. Barlow
Germination responses of tomato, carrot, onion, and sorghum seeds to solutions of K2HPO4, K2HPO4 + KNO3, KNO3, K3PO4, K3PO4 + KNO3, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 at osmotic potentials between −0.25 and −1.75 MPa at 15°C were studied. Seeds that did not germinate in solutions subsequently were germinated in H2O to evaluate the efficacy of priming. Germination was more closely related to ionic strength than to osmotic potential of the imbibitional solution. Carrot seeds germinated in all salt solutions up to an ionic strength of 0.8 mol ions/liter, while onion and sorghum seeds had a threshold of about 1.0 mol ions/liter in salt solutions, except in K3PO4, which had a reduced threshold for both species. Tomato seeds, however, showed a wide range of thresholds between osmotica. The species also differed in their responses to individual osmotica. Differences in effect of osmotica for one germination parameter were not consistent for all germination parameters. Salt solution priming of tomato and carrot seeds was more beneficial to subsequent germination than PEG priming. Salt solution priming of onion seeds was less beneficial than PEG priming, while salt solutions were toxic to sorghum seeds. Tomato and carrot seeds primed in solutions that contained KNO3 had much shorter time spreads of germination than those primed in solutions without KNO3. The use of priming solutions of osmotic potential lower than that needed to inhibit germination resulted in underpriming of the seeds, which could cause a time spread of germination longer than that of untreated seeds. The presence of KNO3 in the priming solution was shown to alleviate some of the disadvantages of underpriming.
Beyoung-han Yoon, Harvey J. Lane, and B. Greg Cobb
Pansy (Viola × wiffrockiana cv. Majestic Giant Blue Shades and Crystal Bowl Sky Blue) seeds were primed in various salt sololions at -1.0 MPa for 3, 6 or 9 days at 23C to determine if priming could overcome thermoinhihition at high temperatures (30C and above). Salt solutions tested were KNO3, KCl, NaCl, MgCl2, Na2SO4, Na2HPO4, K2HPO4 and CaCl2, with polyethylene glycol (PEG) serving as a comparison non-salt solution. Total percent germination (G) of non-primed seeds decreased significantly for both cultivars as germination temperature increased from 25C to 35C. Total seed germination and time to 50% germination (TS,) varied widely among the different priming solutions, with all solutions decreasing Tso as compared to non-primed seeds. Seeds primed with PEG for 6 and 9 days, however, germinated during the priming process and were not further examined. Priming did not significantly improve total percent germination versus non-primed seed at 25C. Seeds that had the best G and T50 at temperatures at or above 30C were those primed for 3 days with CaCl2 (for `Crystal Bowl' there was a 40% increase in G at 35C), and MgCl2 (for `Majestic Giant' there was a 15% increase in G at 35C).
C.L. Mackowiak, R.M. Wheeler, G.W. Stutte, and N.C. Yorio
As part of NASA's effort with bioregenerative life support systems, the growth of candidate crops is being investigated in controlled environments. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) was selected for the high oil and protein content of its seed. Peanut cvs. Pronto and Early Bunch were grown from seed, using recirculating nutrient film technique (NFT) in 6-cm-deep, trapazoidal culture trays. The trays were fitted with slotted covers, which allowed developing pegs to reach the root zone. Use of a separate moss-filled pegging compartment above the root zone (tray within a tray) had little effect on seed yield, but resulted in a 60% increase in the nitric acid requirements for pH control. Yields from both cultivars were equivalent to field values on an area basis; however, harvest indices were lower than field values due to the luxuriant canopy growth under controlled environment conditions. Proximate analysis of seeds was similar to field values, with the exception of fat, which was ≈15% lower, and ash, which was ≈30% greater under controlled environment conditions, regardless of cultivar.