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Kimberly A. Williams and Paul V. Nelson

Seven organic materials including 1) the bacterium Brevibacterium lactofermentum (Okumura et al.) in a nonviable state, 2) a mixture of two bacteria, Bacillus licheniformis (Weigmann) and Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg), plus the fungus Aspergillus niger (van Tieghem) in a nonviable state, 3) an activated microbial sludge from waste-water treatment, 4) sludge from a poultry manure methane generator, 5) unsteamed bonemeal, 6) aged pine needles, and 7) poultry feathers were evaluated to determine their pattern and term of N release and the possibility of using them as an integral part of root media releasing N at a steady, low rate over 10 to 12 weeks for production of Dendranthema × grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura `Sunny Mandalay'. These were compared to the inorganic slow-release fertilizer micro Osmocote (17N-3.9P-10.8K) and a weekly liquid fertilizer control. All organic sources released N most rapidly during the first 2 weeks, followed by a decline, which ended at 6 to 7 weeks. Brevibacterium lactofermentum, bonemeal, and micro Osmocote treatments resulted in about equal growth, which was similar to growth of a weekly liquid fertilizer control for 9 weeks in the first and for 12 weeks in the second experiment. The period of N release could not be extended through increased application rate of source due to the high initial release rate. It was not possible to lower source application rates to achieve an effective, low soil solution concentration due to the large variation in release rate over time. Efficiency of N use varied among plants grown in media treated with various microorganismal sources and was highest in those treated with B. lactofermentum. Nitrogen release from ground poultry feathers was inadequate, and additions of the viable hydrolyzing bacterium B. licheniformis to feathers failed to increase soil solution N levels. Attempts to retard mineralization of B. lactofermentum by cross-linking proteins contained within the bacterium by means of heat treatment at 116C vs. 82C failed. While anaerobic poultry manure sludge proved to be an inefficient source of N, it provided large amounts of P. Organic sources released primarily ammoniacal N, which raised the medium pH by as much as one unit, necessitating the use of less limestone in the medium formulation.

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Fan Li, Xijun Mo, Lifang Wu, and Chunmei Yang

Induction of mutation in Chrysanthemum ( Dendranthema grandiflorum Tzvelev.) cultivar Bindiya through gamma irradiation Indian J. Hort. 72 376 381 Vasko, V. Kyrychenko, V. 2016 Variability of valuable economic traits in M1 and M2 sunflower generations

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Hisanao Suzue, Munetaka Hosokawa, and Susumu Yazawa

, S. Goi, M. Tanaka, M. 1994 The chimeric structure of the apical dome of chrysanthemum [ Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitam.] is affected by cryopreservation Scientia Hort. 57 347 351 Hosokawa, M

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Barbara A. Fair, Brian Whipker,, Ingram McCall, and Wayne Buhler

( Olsen and Andersen, 1995 )], chrysanthemum [ Dendranthema × grandiflorum ( Pobudkiewicz and Nowak, 1997 )], and streptocarpus [ Streptocarpus hybridus ( Pobudkiewicz, 2000 )]. Recommendations for commercial use in greenhouse production indicate foliar

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H. Chris Wien

2005 ( Jerardo, 2006 ). The production of cut flower crops worldwide has undergone profound changes in the last 40 years. Whereas the major cut flower crops [rose ( Rosa spp.), carnation ( Dianthus caryophyllus ), chrysanthemum ( Dendranthema

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Chun-Qing Sun, Zhi-Hu Ma, Guo-Sheng Sun, Zhong-Liang Dai, Nian-jun Teng, and Yue-Ping Pan

to pollen quality, pollen germination, or embryo abortion. Pollen quality, pistil receptivity, and embryo and endosperm development have been widely examined in many crops, for example, Dendranthema grandiflorum , Nelumbo nucifera , Phaseolus

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Lili Dong, Qi Wang, Feng Xiong, Na Liu, and ShuiMing Zhang

Physiol. 151 400 412 Hepworth, J.A. 2012 Comparative analysis of the MAX pathway. Univ. of York, York, UK, PhD Diss Liang, J.L. Zhao, L.J. Challis, R. Leyser, O. 2010 Strigolactone regulation of shoot branching in chrysanthemum ( Dendranthema grandiflorum

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Chunqing Sun, Zhihu Ma, Zhenchao Zhang, Guosheng Sun, and Zhongliang Dai

hybridization. Consequently, the parental reproductive systems and the sexual reproduction process have been studied in many plants, such as Dendranthema grandiflorum , Phaseolus vulgaris , Nelumbo nucifera , Fragaria ananssa , and Jasminum sambac ( Deng

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Jinpeng Xing, Yan Xu, Jiang Tian, Thomas Gianfagna, and Bingru Huang

; Khodakovskaya et al., 2005 ), chrysanthemum ( Dendranthema × grandiflorum ) ( Khodakovskaya et al., 2005 ), and tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) ( Luo et al., 2005 ), and in a limited number of monocot plant species such as tall fescue ( Festuca arundinacea

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Robert H. Stamps

of copper sulfate spectral filters, daminozide and exogenous gibberellic acid on growth of Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura ‘Bright Golden Anne’ J. Plant Growth Regul. 10 207 214 Rajapakse, N.C. Kelly, J.W. 1992 Regulation of