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Songul Severmutlu, Nedim Mutlu, Ercan Gurbuz, Osman Gulsen, Murat Hocagil, Osman Karaguzel, Tiffany Heng-Moss, Robert C. Shearman, and Rock E. Gaussoin

transport system that retrieves water from deep in the profile and delivers it to the drying surface soil at night, has been reported in bermudagrass [ Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis ( Baker and Van Bavel, 1986 )] and buffalograss ( Huang, 1999

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Travis Culpepper, Joseph Young, David T. Montague, Dana Sullivan, and Benjamin Wherley

production ( Steinke et al., 2011 ). A number of C 3 and C 4 turfgrasses are adapted to the transition zone region of the United States, including bermudagrass [ Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] (C 4 ), buffalograss [ Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.), Engel.] (C 4

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Godwin Shokoya, Charles Fontanier, Dennis L. Martin, and Bruce L. Dunn

; Trappe et al. 2011 ). For example, bermudagrass ( Cynodon dactylon ) is widely regarded as having poor shade tolerance and may require over 20 mol·m 2 ·d −1 of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) to form an acceptable lawn ( Chhetri et al. 2019

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Benjamin Wherley and Thomas R. Sinclair

application and N rate on growth and evapotranspiration of ‘Penncross’ creeping bentgrass ( Agrostis stolonifera L.) and ‘Tifdwarf’ bermudagrass [ Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × Cynodon transvaalensis Burtt-Davy]. Materials and Methods Spring and

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Ada Baldi, Anna Lenzi, Marco Nannicini, Andrea Pardini, and Romano Tesi

( Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis ) Adv. Hort. Sci. 26 17 20 Liu, G.D. Wu, W.L. Zhang, J. 2005 Regional differentiation of non-point source pollution of agriculture-derived nitrate nitrogen in groundwater in northern China Agr. Ecosyst. Environ. 107

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Marco Volterrani, Nicola Grossi, Monica Gaetani, Lisa Caturegli, Aimila-Eleni Nikolopoulou, Filippo Lulli, and Simone Magni

and Zhang, 2008 ). Besides these effects, the increase in stolon growth has been reported for common bermudagrass ( Cynodon dactylon ) ( Juska, 1958 ). EP is labeled for annual bluegrass ( Poa annua ) seed head suppression and for regulating the growth

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Robert Andrew Kerr, Lambert B. McCarty, Matthew Cutulle, William Bridges, and Christopher Saski

) assess if irrigating immediately following the herbicide application reduces injury of ‘Tifway 419’ bermudagrass [ Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × Cynodon transvaalensis Burtt-Davy]; and 3) evaluate if immediate irrigation influences goosegrass control

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Lakshmy Gopinath, Justin Quetone Moss, and Yanqi Wu

The susceptibility of warm-season turfgrasses such as bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) to winter injury in the transition zone is a major concern. Therefore, the objective of the study was to evaluate five golf course putting green-type experimental genotypes (OKC6318, OKC0805, OKC1609, OKC0920, and OKC3920) and three commercially available bermudagrasses (‘Champion Dwarf’, ‘TifEagle’, and ‘Tahoma 31’) for freeze tolerance by subjecting them to 11 freezing temperatures (–4 to –14 °C) under controlled environment conditions. The experiment was conducted in batches, with four genotypes per batch, and each batch was replicated in time. The mean lethal temperature to kill 50% of the population (LT50) for each genotype was determined. There were significant differences in LT50 values among the bermudagrass genotypes. ‘Champion Dwarf’ had an LT50 value ranging from –5.2 to –5.9 °C across all three batches. The experimental genotypes tested in this study had LT50 values ranging from –7.0 to –8.1 °C and were each lower than that of ‘Champion Dwarf’. ‘Tahoma 31’, the top performing genotype, had an LT50 value ranging from –7.8 to –9.0 °C across all three batches. OKC 3920 was the only experimental genotype with an LT50 value in the same statistical group as ‘Tahoma 31’. The information gained from this research would be useful for breeders to gauge the genetic gain in freeze tolerance in breeding golf course putting green-type bermudagrass.

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Matteo Serena, Bernd Leinauer, Rossana Sallenave, Marco Schiavon, and Bernd Maier

during germination. Information on the germination of warm-season grasses under saline conditions is limited and what is known indicates a wide range of salinity tolerances among species. For example, bermudagrass [ Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] is one of

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Fang Xu, Junqin Zong, Jingbo Chen, Jianjian Li, Dandan Li, Jianxiu Liu, and Fang Xu

environments and seasons, and so on. Bermuda grass ( Cynodon dactylon L.) and pampas grass ( Cortaderia selloana ) are excellent ornamental grass varieties with high absorption rate, strong tolerance, high aboveground biomass, and easy cultivation ( Li et al