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M.P. Garber, J. M. Ruter, J.T. Midcap, and K. Bondari

A 2001 survey of 102 nurseries that were members of the Georgia Green Industry Association was conducted to assess irrigation practices of container ornamental nurseries. Mean nursery size was 64 acres (26 ha) and mean annual revenue was about $3 million. About 50% of the irrigation water was from wells and the other 50% came from surface sources, such as collection basins. Irrigation in smaller containers, including #1, #3, and #5, was applied primarily by overhead methods, while larger containers (#7, #15, #25) made extensive use of direct application methods, such as drip or spray stakes. Frequency of irrigation in the summer growing months was about three times that of the winter season. Georgia nurseries use irrigation practices suggested in Southern Nursery Association best management practices, including collection of runoff water (48%), cyclic irrigation (44%), watering in the morning (92%), and grass strips between the production beds and drainage areas (60%).

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Marc W. Van Iersel, Sue Dove, Jong-Goo Kang, and Stephanie E. Burnett

Managing global water resources is one of the most pressing challenges of the 21st century. Population growth and increased urbanization have increased competition for water by agricultural, industrial, and domestic users. Agricultural water use

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Larry R. Parsons and T. Adair Wheaton

132 ORAL SESSION 41 (Abstr. 306–313) Water Stress–Utilization/Cross-commodity

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Hui-lian Xu, Laurent Gauthier, and André Gosselin

76 POSTER SESSION 9 Water Stress, Water Utilization, & Water Management/Cross-Commodity

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Richard C. Beeson Jr. and Thomas H. Yeager

Marketable size plants of sweet viburnum (Viburnum odoratissimum Ker-Gawl.), waxleaf ligustrum (Ligustrum japonicum Thunb.), and azalea (Rhododendron spp. L. `Southern Charm') grown in 11.4-L containers were irrigated with overhead impact sprinklers at container spacings ranging from 0 to 51 cm apart. Water reaching the substrate surface was quantified and the percentage of that applied calculated as percent capture (% capture). Percent capture is defined as the percentage of water falling above the plant within a projected vertical cylinder of a container that reaches the substrate surface. For all species, % capture increased linearly with the decline in adjacent canopy interaction, which results from canopies extending beyond the diameter of a container. Increases in total leaf area or leaf area outside the cylinder of a container, in conjunction with increasing distance between containers, were significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with increases in % capture for ligustrum and viburnum. Increases in % capture partially compensated for decreases in percentage of production area occupied by viburnum containers as distances between containers increased, but not for the other two species. Under commercial conditions, optimal irrigation efficiency would be achieved when plants are grown at the minimum spacing required for commercial quality. This spacing should not extend beyond the point where canopies become isolated.

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K. Shackel, S. Southwick, and B. Lampinen

49 ORAL SESSION 12 (Abstr. 081-087) Tree Fruits and Nuts: Water and Temperature Stress

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Adán Fimbres Fontes, Raúl Leonel Grijalva Contreras, Fabian Robles Contreras, and J.A. Cristobal Navarro Ainza

51 POSTER SESSION 2E (Abstr. 109–114) Water Utilization & Management—Cross-commodity

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Krishna S. Nemali and Marc W van Iersel

Decreasing water resources and a steadily increasing population in urban areas in the United States have increased pressure on the availability and usage of greenhouse irrigation water and have forced stricter government regulations of

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Huey-Ling Lin, Jenjira Chumpookam, Ching-Chang Shiesh, and Wen-Hsin Chung

the target pathogens to chemical a.i. curtails the efficacy and useful lifetime of fungicides, which must then be further developed at increasingly higher costs ( Ma and Michailides, 2005 ). Smoke-water, which is generated by burning plant material and

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Said A. Hamido, Kelly T. Morgan, and Davie M. Kadyampakeni

Evapotranspiration (ET) is a dominating factor in the water cycle for most agricultural crops including citrus and plays a critical role in irrigation management ( Bates et al., 2008 ; Castel et al., 1987 ; Jia et al., 2007 ; Morgan, 1992