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Vanessa E.T.M. Ashworth, Haofeng Chen, Carlos L. Calderón-Vázquez, Mary Lu Arpaia, David N. Kuhn, Mary L. Durbin, Livia Tommasini, Elizabeth Deyett, Zhenyu Jia, Michael T. Clegg, and Philippe E. Rolshausen

feasible. However, breeding in this long-lived tree crop is frustrated by an outcrossing breeding system, high heterozygosity, long generation times [up to 15 years ( Bergh and Lahav, 1996 )], and the need for costly field trials to accommodate tree size

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Khin Thida One, Narathid Muakrong, Chamnanr Phetcharat, Patcharin Tanya, and Peerasak Srinives

uneven fruit maturity. Progress in jatropha breeding is still limited, attributed mainly to its low genetic diversity ( Tar et al., 2011 ). Germplasm improvement is initially the main pre-breeding work before an effective jatropha breeding program can be

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Ting Liao, Guobin Liu, Liqin Guo, Ye Wang, Yanwu Yao, and Jun Cao

the most commonly used trees worldwide. Moreover, as one of the city trees in Beijing, it is an important local tree species for afforestation, border trees, and landscaping unique to northern China. Its wood has moderate hardness and strong corrosion

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Qin Yang and Yan Fu

ages, a large number of innovative germplasms and new varieties of fruit trees have been created using conventional breeding methods, such as sexual hybridization and seedling selection, and this diversity plays an important role in the sustainable

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Xiaomeng Li, Rangjin Xie, Zhenhua Lu, and Zhiqin Zhou

as fruit tree species ( Coart et al., 2003 ; Pang et al., 2007 ). In particular, the AFLP technique has been used successfully to assess the origin of landrace cultivars of cultivated potato [ Solanum tuberosum ( Spooner et al., 2005 )]. Chloroplast

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John M. Capik and Thomas J. Molnar

and breeding resources, forest trees. Springer-Verlag, Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany Molnar, T.J. Capik, J.M. Goffreda, J.C. 2009 Response of hazelnut progenies from known resistant parents to Anisogramma anomala in New Jersey, U.S.A Acta Hort. 845 73

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María Engracia Guerra, Ana Wünsch, Margarita López-Corrales, and Javier Rodrigo

Flower emasculation is widely used in breeding programs for hybridization of deciduous fruit trees ( Layne, 1983 ). This technique is also used in cytological and genetic studies ( Okie and Hancock, 2008 ) and in different field experiments in which

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Richard L. Bell

Host resistance to pear psyllids [ Cacopsylla pyri (L.), C. pyricola (Förster), and C. pyrisuga (Förster)] is a major objective of several pear breeding programs in North America and Europe ( Bellini and Nin, 2002 ; Brewer and Palmer, 2011

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Luis Rallo

, 2012 ). Resistance to these forms of damage continues to be an objective in the breeding of table olives. Although reductions in tree size has been proposed to increase harvest efficiency in trunk shaker systems, which implies a tendency to shorten

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Hongmei Ma, Richard Olsen, Margaret Pooler, and Matthew Kramer

characteristics. Integral to this breeding program is our flowering cherry germplasm collection, consisting of over 1500 trees representing at least 30 diverse taxa. The taxonomy and nomenclature of the ornamental flowering cherries is complicated and confusing