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Ravneet K. Sandhu, Nathan S. Boyd, Lincoln Zotarelli, Shinsuke Agehara, and Natalia Peres

, such as plastic mulch, drip tape, and fumigation ( Duval, 2005 ). It is classified as mixed, relay, or strip cropping based on the production design and transplanting date ( Rosa-Schleich et al., 2019 ). There are many other advantages of intercropping

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Paige L. Herring, Abbey C. Noah, and Helen T. Kraus

Sphagnum peat is a finite resource that is often used in the horticultural industry as a component in many substrates specifically in greenhouse production for transplants ( Abad et al., 2001 ). Peat is mined from its natural wetland habitat, and

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Toshio Shibuya, Akihito Sugimoto, Yoshiaki Kitaya, Makoto Kiyota, Yuichiro Nagasaka, and Shinya Kawaguchi

constructed with small plants such as transplants. In addition, this method is especially useful for evaluating plant responses to humidity, because the effects of humidity depend on the vapor pressure deficit (VPD) within the boundary layer of leaves ( Bunce

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Emmanuel A. Torres-Quezada, Lincoln Zotarelli, Vance M. Whitaker, Rebecca L. Darnell, Bielinski M. Santos, and Kelly T. Morgan

( Rubinstein, 2015 ; Whitaker et al., 2014 ). The most commonly used transplant type in Florida is bare root ( Bish and Cantliffe, 2002 ; Bish et al., 1997 ). Bare-root leaf-on transplants promote earlier yield compared with those with leaves removed, but

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Julie Guckenberger Price, Amy N. Wright, Robert S. Boyd, and Kenneth M. Tilt

Newly transplanted trees and shrubs in urban areas frequently encounter compacted soils with disturbed horizons, competition for space with underground infrastructure, pollution, excessive heat, high foot traffic, and are often neglected in terms of

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George E. Boyhan and C. Randy Hill

increase in heterotrophic fungal populations. Amendments included sunflower stalks ( Helianthus annuus ), lucerne ( Medicago sativa ), and Hungarian vetch ( Vicia pannonica ). Onion production in the Vidalia region is primarily a transplanted crop with

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Charlie Garcia and Roberto G. Lopez

, commercially referred to as “transplants” ( Mitchell et al., 2015 ). For example, earlier and multiple harvests per growing season, better stand development, and increased profitability are a result of using high-quality transplants ( Schrader, 2000

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Thayne Montague and Lindsey Fox

Field-grown (FG) trees lose a significant portion of their root system ( Gilman and Beeson, 1996 ) and when transplanted are subjected to great stress. Water deficits often develop ( Montague et al., 2000a ) because the natural balance between

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Charles L. Rohwer and Vincent A. Fritz

; Wien et al., 1993 ). Transplant solutions containing P are recommended to commercial tomato growers ( Rosen and Eliason, 2005 ; University of Minnesota, 2016 ) and gardeners ( Rosen et al., 2008 ) for similar purposes: to provide ready access to early

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J. Roger Harris, Alex Niemiera, Jody Fanelli, and Robert Wright

Two experiments tested the effects of root pruning on growth during first-season production of pin oak (Quercus palustris Muenchh.). Experiment one tested the effect of root pruning developing radicles at 5, 10, or 15 cm (2, 4, or 6 inches) below the substrate surface. After 11 weeks, total root length was not affected by root pruning, but root-pruned seedlings had more main lateral [>2-mm (0.08-inch) diameter] roots than those that were not root pruned. Shallow pruning increased the number of main lateral roots. Experiment two tested the effect of initially producing plants in different-depth bottomless containers [5, 10, 15, or 20-cm (2, 4, 6, or 8-inch) depth] on growth after transplanting to #2 [6 L (1.6 gal)] containers. Shoot and root growth in #2 containers were lowest when plants were originally produced in 5-cm-deep containers. Plants with the greatest height and highest root:shoot ratios were obtained when plants were grown initially in 10-cm-deep containers. Predicted optimum depth of bottomless containers from regression equations ranged from 11.3 cm (4.5 inches) to 14.2 cm (5.5 inches) for the different growth parameters measured. The importance of these findings are: Pruning developing radicles of pin oak seedlings increases the number of main lateral roots but not overall root length. Growers can maximize growth in #2 containers by initially growing in 10-cm-deep bottomless containers before transplanting to #2 containers.