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Celina Gómez and Cary A. Mitchell

and dry weight gain, stem elongation, and leaf expansion ( Heo et al., 2012 ; Johkan et al., 2010 ; Wu et al., 2007 ), whereas blue light (400 to 500 nm) affects morphological development and biomass production in species-specific and growth

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Stephanie E. Burnett, Donglin Zhang, Lois B. Stack, and Zhongqi He

include reduced shoot growth ( Marschner, 1995 ). Water-soluble fertilizers with equal amounts of nitrogen and P 2 O 5 (i.e., those with a 20N–17.4P–16.6K formulation) may contain higher than necessary P concentrations for this species. Zhang et al

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Amy L. Burton, Svoboda V. Pennisi, and Marc W. van Iersel

. Species-specific responses have been documented for various growth parameters, such as growth index, dry weight, and root-to-shoot ratio ( Conover and Poole, 1981 ). In addition, production irradiance also affects acclimation. Because the majority of

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Claudia Elkins and Marc W. van Iersel

shoot and root dry weight. Although plant height is an obvious and common measurement to assess shade responses, it also is a poor indicator of elongation, because it cannot distinguish between plants that grow faster (increased dry weight) vs. plants

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María Victoria González, Manuel Rey, Raffaela Tavazza, Stefano La Malfa, Luigi Cuozzo, and Giorgio Ancora

Plant regeneration was obtained from adventitious buds induced in isolated cotyledons of Italian stone pine (Pinus pinea L.). The best results for bud induction were obtained by using half-strength LePoivre medium with 4.5 μM 6-benzyladenine for 30 days. Shoot elongation was achieved in the same medium without growth regulators but with the addition of 0.5% activated charcoal. The induction medium was the best also for shoot multiplication, but it was necessary to include subcultures on elongation medium. The slow elongation rate of adventitious shoots remains the greatest obstacle to multiplication. Root formation (15%) after 5 months was observed when shoots were cultured on elongation medium for long periods.

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Peter Alem, Paul A. Thomas, and Marc W. van Iersel

southeastern United States, because of the difficulty of cooling greenhouses in late summer, when shoot elongation of poinsettia is rapid. In addition, when multiple crops are grown in one greenhouse, DIF cannot be used to control growth of individual crops

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Dean A. Kopsell, Carl E. Sams, and Robert C. Morrow

regulation of the cell cycle) are blue-light receptors responding to blue/ultraviolet (UV) light wavelengths. Cryptochromes trigger signaling molecules that regulate responses such as circadian rhythms and stem elongation, whereas phototropins control

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Iftikhar Ahmad, Brian E. Whipker, and John M. Dole

marketing, and plant height and diameter (potted plants only), shoot fresh weight, dry weight (after drying at 70 °C for 72 h), and leaf color at termination. Plant height was measured from pot rim to top of flower, and plant diameter was measured at two

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Jeff S. Kuehny and Mary C. Halbrooks

Research defining actual changes in weight gain of roots and shoots during growth episodes of woody ornamentals is limited. The objective of this study was to develop a better understanding of the patterns of root and shoot growth, nitrogen uptake, and changes in carbohydrate and protein content of Ligustrum japonicum, an episodic species. Shoot elongation and lateral root formation were synchronous. The greatest increase in shoot percent of whole plant fresh weight occurred after shoot elongation however, and the greatest increase in root percent of whole plant fresh weight occurred during shoot elongation. Nitrate uptake was highest during shoot elongation and lateral root formation. Carbohydrate and protein content also varied with each episode of growth.

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Shinsuke Agehara and Daniel I. Leskovar

full recovery of root elongation when ABA in the elongation zone was restored to normal levels with exogenous ABA ( Sharp, 1994 ). The overall effect of ABA can be summarized as an increase in root-to-shoot ratio, which, along with the regulation of