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Noah J. Langenfeld and Bruce Bugbee

cathode, and produces a voltage difference with the anode that is proportional to oxygen concentration ( Parra et al., 2018 ). There are two types of electrochemical technology. Polarographic sensors have a gold cathode and silver anode that are

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Michael D. Dukes, Lincoln Zotarelli, and Kelly T. Morgan

, 2008b , 2009 ). Because applying frequent small-volume irrigation with conventional systems tends to be labor-intensive and/or technically difficult to use, sensor-based irrigation systems may facilitate the successful use of low-volume, high

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Amanda Bayer, John Ruter, and Marc W. van Iersel

currently limited ( Warsaw et al., 2009 ). Understanding how plant growth is affected by maintenance of different θ thresholds will allow for species-specific guidelines. Automated irrigation using capacitance sensors to maintain θ thresholds can be used to

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Shuyang Zhen and Stephanie E. Burnett

irrigation efficiency is that it reduces water and fertilizer waste. In the previously mentioned research, plants that were irrigated when substrates were dry according to measurements from sensors received 83% less irrigation water than those that were

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William L. Bauerle and Joseph D. Bowden

This report describes a system for integrating photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) using fiberoptics. Many photoelectric sensors or 1-m-long line sensors that integrate individual interception points for spatial averaging were replaced with fiberoptics, which integrate interception points. Depending on the positioning of optical fibers and the amount of fibers terminated at a PAR sensor, whole-plant, canopy layer, and individual leaf light interception can be determined. The use of fiberoptics has the added advantage of being very small in comparison to the bulk of a typical quantum sensor. The fiberoptic-based system potentially is a more accurate, less expensive method to integrate PAR throughout plant canopies than PAR sensors.

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Qamar Uz Zaman, Arnold Walter Schumann, and David Charles Percival

accurate than survey maps and DEM. However, these techniques are expensive and data processing is also intensive and complicated. Therefore, there is a need to develop a cost-effective system using reliable and inexpensive sensors for real-time measurement

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Sai Xu, Huazhong Lu, and Xiuxiu Sun

detection method ( Alves et al., 2011 ) and the physicochemical detection method ( Huang et al., 2016 ). The sensor detection method evaluates the qualities of litchi fruit such as the pericarp color, flavor, and fragrance based on multiple human perceptive

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Thomas A. Obreza and Arnold Schumann

receive any fertilizer. With VRT, fertilizer is applied on a tree-by-tree basis using automatic sensors to determine the rate according to tree height or canopy density ( Schumann et al., 2006 ). Fertilizer use in highly variable citrus groves has been

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Laura A. Warner, Alexa J. Lamm, Peyton Beattie, Sarah A. White, and Paul R. Fisher

avoid foliar diseases subirrigation: ebb-and-flood irrigation delivery from below the container, usually combined with a collection tank to hold water and reduce leaching and foliar diseases soil moisture sensors: timing of irrigation based on automated

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Kevin M. Folta and Sofia D. Carvalho

and development ( Carvalho and Folta, 2014a ). The work described the effects of growing a range of crop plants under narrow-bandwidth radiation, such as that provided by LED light. To complement that work, this review addresses the range of sensors