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Zhitong Li and John M. Ruter

, unsightly fruit eventually develop and remain on the stalks until the end of the season. This unsightliness greatly decreases the ornamental value. Thus, breeding for sterility is attempted to avoid formation and growth of seed stalks, and to improve

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Bhaskar Bondada

seed dispersal. This adaptive trait seems to be the underlying selective force in the evolution of fleshy fruit attractive to animals ( Rodrıguez et al., 2013 ). Because humans are ancestrally derived from frugivorous primates ( Dudley, 2004 ), these

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Kristen Young and Eileen A. Kabelka

from commercial companies (Seed Savers, Decorah, IA; and Reimer Seeds, Mount Holly, NC). Controlled pollinations were carried out in the greenhouse to generate F 1 (BKB × Zuc76), F 2 , and backcross (BKB × F 1 , F 1 × BKB, and F 1 × Zuc76

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Sameer Pokhrel, Bo Meyering, Kim D. Bowman, and Ute Albrecht

Until the 1800s, the typical method of citrus propagation was by growing seed of the desired fruiting variety ( Castle, 2010 ). Although grafting in citrus has been reported since the Roman era, the commercial cultivation of grafted citrus did not

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Hazel Y. Wetzstein, Zibin Zhang, Nadav Ravid, and Michael E. Wetzstein

medicine ( Holland et al., 2009 ). Pomegranate produces fruit that is valued for its juice-containing arils, health benefits, and decoration and is consumed and marketed as whole fresh fruit, extracted arils, juice, syrup (grenadine), wine, teas, seed oil

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Chase Jones-Baumgardt, David Llewellyn, Qinglu Ying, and Youbin Zheng

grown in lit environments and then harvested and consumed at an immature growth stage. Microgreens are densely seeded and harvested shortly after the cotyledons have fully developed, either with or without the emergence of the first true leaves depending

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William Reichert, H. Chung Park, H. Rodolfo Juliani, and James E. Simon

bilabiate bisexual flowers, this plant can self-pollinate and also has the ability to outcross ( Claûen et al., 2003 ). Current production methods use seeds and transplants from undomesticated populations. While normally cultivated for the pet toy industry

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Yihui Cui, Peng Zhao, Hongqiang An, Nan Lv, Zifeng Zhang, Wei Pei, and Wanjun Wang

of somatic embryogenesis and focus on the formation of initial somatic embryo cells and pathways of somatic embryo’s origin. Materials and Methods Induction and regeneration of somatic embryo. Mature seeds of D . candidum were cultured in an MS

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Luwbia Aranda, Timothy G. Porch, Mark J. Bassett, Laura Lara, and Perry B. Cregan

colored seedcoat patterns with four seedcoat colors in the presence of cl (with t ) ( Table 1 ). Bassett (2007) further clarified the anatomy of the precipitation line in partly colored seeds by describing a physical groove observed in the surface of

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Elina Yankova-Tsvetkova, Ivanka B. Semerdjieva, Rozalia Nikolova, and Valtcho D. Zheljazkov

crops that could be produced on marginal lands. Some species of genus Lepidium of the family Brassicaceae are ruderal plants and produce seeds rich in fatty acid oils ( Eriksson and Merker, 2011 ; Merker et al., 2010 ). The genus Lepidium L