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Dennis J. Werner and Layne K. Snelling

of ‘Covey’ × ‘Forest Pansy’ in 2001. ‘Covey’ [U.S. Plant Patent (USPP) 10,328) was introduced by Brotzman's Nursery Inc., Madison, OH, in 1997 and is described as a green-leafed, weeping form of eastern redbud with light purple flowers ( Dirr, 2009

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Xiaojing Liu, Naiwei Li, Fengfeng Du, Xin Li, Yajun Chang, Ning Shi, Yuesheng Ding, and Dongrui Yao

-layered flowers; broad outer petals with yellow-green coloration, red-purple petal tips, and clear dorsal veins; and narrow, small, erect inner petals with red or green spots. In replicated trials, ‘Zijin Chuoying’ has a similar growth habit to cultivar Zhufeng

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D.A. Devitt, R.L. Morris, L.K. Fenstermaker, M. Baghzouz, and D.S. Neuman

Nineteen flowering landscape species were sprinkle irrigated with either reuse water or fresh water, with an additional treatment of reuse water plus shade (solar radiation reduced by 24%), for 113 days during late summer and early fall in southern Nevada. The species selected were common to mixed landscape areas on golf courses in southern Nevada transitioning to reuse water. An index of visual damage (IVD) was assessed, along with an assessment of flower production, canopy temperature, tissue ion analysis and spectral reflectance. The IVD values separated based on species (p < 0.001), treatment (p < 0.001) and by a species by treatment interaction (p < 0.001). Irrigating with reuse water plus shade reduced the IVD compared to the reuse without shade in 7 of the 19 species (p < 0.05). When IVD values were included for all species, 40% of the variation in the IVD values could be accounted for if N, B, Ca, Mg, Na, and Zn were included in the regression equation. Higher r 2 values were obtained when individual species were isolated, with regression equations differing based on tissue ion combinations [e.g., ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.) r 2 = 0.81 IVD↑, Na↓, Mn↑]. Three vegetation indices chlorophyll index (CHL), red/far red (R/FR) and water band index/normalized difference vegetation index (WBI/NDVI)) accounted for 51% of the variation in the IVD values. As much as 72% of the variation in vegetation indices could be accounted for based on tissue ion concentrations when separated based on treatment, with Na being the only common ion in all of the highest correlations. Flower production was highest in the reuse plus shade treatment in all 13 species flowering during the experimental period, with as much as 86% of the flower production variation driven by different tissue ion concentrations [purple cup (Nierembergia hippomanica), r 2 = 0.86, flowers↑, Mn↑, Zn↓]. Nine of the nineteen species had acceptable levels of foliar damage (IVD < 2.0). We believe that if the spray irrigation can be minimized (bubblers/drip) and/or partial shade provided, through multi-story landscape designs, a more favorable response will be observed.

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Zhiyi Bao, Bo Chen, and Hua Zhang

in spring except nos. 16, 19, and 20. All flower colors were in the Red-Purple Group (57–74) with variation in the intensity ( Table 1 ). Petal size and number, and floret number. Petal length ranged from 1.34 to 2.40 cm, and petal width

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David C. Zlesak

), purple foliage, powdery mildew resistance, and light pink flowers in mid- to late spring. It is adapted to USDA cold hardiness zones 3 to 7 and does well across a wide range of soil types. The compact, dense growth habit of ‘Donna May’ offers new

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Wenjing Li, Zihang Zhang, Ji Tian, Jie Zhang, Yanfen Lu, Xiaoxiao Qin, Yujing Hu, and Yuncong Yao

Malus crabapples are popular ornamental plants in the Rosaceae family that have a beautiful shape; colorful leaves, flowers, and fruits; and extensive environmental adaptability. Among crabapples, there are some important varieties with purple-red

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Don R. La Bonte, Arthur Q. Villordon, Christopher A. Clark, Paul W. Wilson, and C. Scott Stoddard

.5G (green) Y (yellow) 8/4] elliptic 9.8-mm long sepals. The flower is mostly light purple [2.5R (red) P (purple) 6/2] on the exterior and darker in the throat of the corolla [2.5R (red) P (purple) 3/8]. The stigma is purple [5R (red) P (purple) 6

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Cecil T. Pounders and Hamidou F. Sakhanokho

. ‘Miss Gail’ stands out because of its superior purple flower color, ‘Miss Frances’ because of its superior red flower color along with an attractive green foliage, and ‘Miss Sandra’ because of its elite purple flower color and tight vertical growth habit

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J.C. Vlahos and M. Dragassaki

Ebenus cretica, Leguminosae, is a characteristic endemic plant of the Mediterranean island of Crete. It is a perennial bush up to 1 m tall with composite pubescent leaves and pinky red or purple flowers on 5- to 20-cm-long racemes. The fruit is surrounded by the calyx and contains one seed. The plants grow on rocky hillsides in alkaline soils at an altitude of up to 600 m and flower from April to June. Ebenus has the potential for use as a container or landscape flowering plant, and this study was aimed at finding methods to propagate it either by seed or by shoot cuttings. Seed collected from native plants in late July/Aug. 1992 germinated well (70% to 90%) without scarification in a commercial potting mix. Fifty percent of the seed germinated in vitro between 13 and 25 days, depending on temperature and substrate used. Temperatures of 25 or 30C in light at a pH ≈6.0 favored germination. Removal of the dry calyx coating the seed enhanced germination and emergence. For rooting Ebenus cuttings, several concentrations of IAA, IBA, and NAA were used in combination with different types of cuttings (soft or hardwood, tip or basal, cultivated or wild). Best results were obtained by wounding the base and dipping shoot-tip cuttings (12 cm long) in 600 mg IBA/liter for 16 hours. Significant differences, however, were observed among germination and rooting percentages when seeds or cuttings were taken from different plants due to genetic diversity. Therefore, selection is required for optimal results.

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Roberto G. Lopez and Erik S. Runkle

Miltoniopsis orchids have appealing potted-plant characteristics, including large, fragrant, and showy pansylike flowers that range from white and yellow to shades of red and purple. Scheduling orchid hybrids to flower on specific dates requires knowledge of how light and temperature regulate the flowering process. We performed experiments to determine whether a 9- or 16-h photoperiod [short day (SD) or long day (LD)] before vernalization and vernalization temperatures of 8, 11, 14, 17, 20, or 23 °C under SD or LD regulate flowering of potted Miltoniopsis orchids. Flowering of Miltoniopsis Augres `Trinity' was promoted most when plants were exposed to SD and then vernalized at 11 or 14 °C. Additional experiments were performed to determine how durations of prevernalization SD and vernalization at 14 °C influenced flowering of Miltoniopsis Augres `Trinity' and Eastern Bay `Russian'. Plants were placed under SD or LD at 20 °C for 0, 4, 8, 12, or 16 weeks and then transferred to 14 °C under SD for 8 weeks. Another set of plants was placed under SD or LD at 20 °C for 8 weeks and then transferred to 14 °C with SD for 0, 3, 6, 9, or 12 weeks. After treatments, plants were grown in a common environment at 20 °C with LD. Flowering of Miltoniopsis Augres `Trinity' was most complete and uniform (≥90%) when plants were exposed to SD for 4 or 8 weeks before 8 weeks of vernalization at 14 °C. Flowering percentage of Miltoniopsis Eastern Bay `Russian' was ≥80 regardless of prevernalization photoperiod or duration. This information could be used by greenhouse growers and orchid hobbyists to more reliably induce flowering of potted Miltoniopsis orchids.