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Inga A. Zasada, Thomas W. Walters, and John N. Pinkerton

Plant-parasitic nematodes are major pests of red raspberry, reducing yield and cane growth, and leading to economic losses in many production regions ( Bélair, 1991 ; McElroy, 1991 ; Szczygiel and Rebandel, 1988 ; Trudgill, 1986 ). Plant

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Eric Hanson, Brent Crain, and Joshua Moses

Demand for fresh red raspberries ( Rubus idaeus ) by consumers in the United States has increased dramatically in the past 10 years, mirrored by an equally dramatic increase in both foreign and domestic production. Fresh raspberry movement into U

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Séverine Morel, Richard E. Harrison, Donald D. Muir, and E. Anthony Hunter

., Watsonville CA 95076. This research was funded in part by the Scottish Office Agriculture, Environment and Fisheries Department and the Scottish Soft Fruit Growers Ltd. raspberry development program, which is cofunded by the Horticultural Development Council

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Marja Rantanen and Pauliina Palonen

The production of raspberry ( Rubus idaeus L.) in tunnels and greenhouses is increasing in many countries. When cold-stored plants are forced in a greenhouse, endodormancy may become a problem. Partially released dormancy causes poor and uneven

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Kim S. Lewers and Courtney A. Weber

Researchers developing new cultivars of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus subsp. idaeus L.) and black raspberry (R. occidentalis L.) observe progeny of breeding populations for several seasons to identify those that perform reliably. If a portion of any breeding population could be eliminated based on a qualitative character or molecular marker, resources used for that portion could be used for other progeny. Our objective is to identify such molecular markers for red raspberry and black raspberry. A black raspberry × red raspberry cross was made to develop a map of each parent, and an F2 population was generated to join the maps. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers derived from red raspberry and strawberry were used. The level of homozygosity for the red raspberry was 40%, and the level for the black raspberry was 80%. Severe segregation skewing was observed in the F2 generation and indicates problems with transmission. Our findings help quantify the relative levels of homozygosity previously reported for red raspberry and black raspberry. In addition, the severe skewing observed in the F2 generation provides a molecular perspective to the fertility problems previously reported for the black raspberry × red raspberry hybrids (purple raspberry). Since black raspberry is highly homozygous, purple raspberry has transmission and fertility problems, and black raspberry breeders have reported a frustratingly low level of diversity in this subgroup, development of a black raspberry map is expected to require twice the markers as for a red raspberry map, emphasizing the need for a black raspberry sequence from which to develop molecular markers.

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Wendy K. Hoashi-Erhardt, Patrick P. Moore, Gwenyth E. Windom, and Peter R. Bristow

Root rot caused by the persistent soilborne oomycete Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi is a serious disease of red raspberry in the Pacific Northwest and worldwide. It can decrease the vigor and yield of raspberry plantings and require

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Julie Graham, Mary Woodhead, Kay Smith, Joanne Russell, Bruce Marshall, Gavin Ramsay, and Geoff Squire

Red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus ) is cultivated on a large scale and has frequent sympatric wild populations in the Tayside area of the United Kingdom. The high potential for gene flow between these populations has encouraged the study of the

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James H. Cane

I am grateful to Brandon Willis and Craig Floyd of Laketown, Utah, for supporting these experiments in their commercial raspberries at Bear Lake, to the OSU Southern Oregon Research and Extension Center for access to their demonstration

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M. Joseph Stephens, Peter A. Alspach, Ron A. Beatson, Chris Winefield, and Emily J. Buck

Commercial red raspberry cultivars suited to machine-harvest and process markets need to have a high yield of good-quality fruit that is easily removed during the harvest operations. In the PNW, this has been achieved using the cultivar Meeker

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Marvin P. Pritts, Robert W. Langhans, Thomas H. Whitlow, Mary Jo Kelly, and Aimee Roberts

Floricane-fruiting (summer-bearing) raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) were grown outdoors in pots in upstate New York until mid-December when the chilling requirement was fulfilled. They were moved into a greenhouse and placed at a density that is three times higher than field planting. Bumble bees (Bombus impatiens Cresson) were introduced at flowering for pollination. Fruiting occurred from mid-February through mid-April, a time when the retail price for raspberries is between $3.00 and $6.00 for a half pint (180 g). Fruit quality was high, and individual 2-year-old plants averaged 11 half pints (2 kg) of marketable fruit. These yields and retail prices are equivalent to 19,000 lb and $142,000 per acre (21 t, $350,000 per ha). Raspberry production during winter allows growers to dramatically extend the harvest season and to produce a high-value crop at a time when greenhouses often are empty.