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Carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) is native to the humid tropics of southeastern Asia, where it bears fruit year-round. In south Florida, winter conditions (strong winds and night temperatures below 15 °C) repress growth and flowering of the main commercial cultivar, Arkin, and fruit is produced from July to February. Off-season fruit would reach premium prices. We have previously demonstrated that selective pruning stimulates flowering of carambola at any time of the year. However, flowers produced during cool, windy weather have consistently failed to set fruit. This study was conducted in 1994–1995 to determine whether protected cultivation would help obtain off-season fruit. Four-year-old `Arkin' trees growing in 80-L containers were placed in a glasshouse or outdoors and pruned in November or December to force flowering during December–January. Glasshouse night temperatures during the winter were above 20 °C. All trees flowered in response to pruning. Outdoor trees produced less than one fruit per tree in late March to late April. Glasshouse trees produced 2.3 to 6.1 fruit per tree, 2 to 3 weeks earlier than trees outdoors. In the glasshouse, more than 98% of fruit were seedless, whereas all fruit produced outdoors were seeded. Production of seedless fruit indoors was achieved in the absence of insect pollinators, and yields were low compared to those of outdoor trees during the summer (at least 25 fruit per tree). We speculate that, under protected cultivation, the use of synthetic bioregulators during anthesis and insect pollinators may help increase production of off-season seedless and seeded fruit, respectively.

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–2005 was US$742 million. However, conventional citrus growers are facing increased international competition, relatively low citrus prices, new virulent diseases, competition with residential development for land and water resources, and more stringent

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for assessing the relationship between consumer demand and environmentally friendly goods is investigating the WTP price premiums for underlying product attributes. Previous literature has mainly focused on the effects of product attributes or

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prices ( Brown, 2002 , 2003 ). Organically grown produce is considered to be healthy and environmentally friendly because of the use of less-damaging pesticides ( Magnusson et al., 2001 ; Thompson and Kidwell, 1998 ). For some consumers, premium price

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USDA-certified organic producers chose to decertify. Most of the existing organic foods literature focused on investigating what motivated (or not) farmers to certify organic. Access to markets, price premiums, environmental concerns, and philosophical

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prices. Table 4. Additional yield per plant required in the grafted system to compensate for various grafted transplant price premiums at various sale price levels presented on a per plant basis. Table 4 rows represent various possible price premiums for

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preference and price premiums. For instance, Collart et al. (2010) showed dichotomy in the market with some consumers (i.e., those aware of a local plant brand) willing to pay more, while other consumers (i.e., those not aware of a local plant brand

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Tong, 2009 ). Organic foods also command a premium price, although the proportion of consumers who will pay a premium decreases as the premium level increases ( Yiridoe et al., 2005 ). Reasons consumers buy organic products include their perceptions of

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interested in buying local products at premium prices year-round ( Curtis, 2014 ; Martinez et al., 2010 ). For example, between 1992 and 2007, local food sales grew three times faster in the Far West and Rocky Mountain regions than in other areas of the

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. The ability of ERC biochar to be a profitable product as a potting mix ingredient is partially dependent on its ability to command a price premium because of its environmental benefits. The purpose of this study was to estimate the magnitude of such

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