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Jinquan Feng, Andrew V. McGlone, Mike Currie, Chris J. Clark, and Bob R. Jordan

kiwifruit ( Actinidia chinensis ) based on visible-NIR spectral characteristics at harvest Postharvest Biol. Technol. 32 147 158 Costa, G. Noferini, M. Fiori, G. Miserocchi, O. 2002 Determination of indications of harvest and fruit quality in kiwifruit

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Charles F. Forney

Volatile compounds make a significant contribution to the quality and storage life of fresh strawberries, blueberries, and raspberries. Strawberry aroma is composed predominately of esters, although alcohols, ketones, and aldehydes are also present in smaller quantities. The major volatiles contributing to aroma include ethyl butanoate, 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone, ethyl hexanoate, methyl butanoate, linalool, and methyl hexanoate. In lowbush (wild) blueberries, aroma is predominated by esters and alcohols including ethyl and methyl methylbutanoates, methyl butanoate, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, and 3-buteneol, while highbush blueberry aroma is dominated by aromatic compounds, esters, terpenes and long chain alcohols. The aroma of raspberries is composed of a mixture of ketones and terpenes, including damascenone, ionone, geraniol, and linalool. The composition and concentration of these aroma compounds are affected by fruit maturity and storage conditions. As fruit ripen, the concentration of aroma volatiles rapidly increases. This increase in volatile synthesis closely follows pigment formation both on and off the plant. In strawberry fruit, volatile concentration increases about 4-fold in the 24-h period required for fruit to ripen from 50% red to fully red on the plant. In storage, volatile composition is affected by storage temperature, duration, and atmosphere. Postharvest holding temperature and concentrations of O2 and CO2 can alter the quantity and composition of aroma volatiles. The effects of postharvest environments on volatile composition will be discussed.

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Gary A. Chastagner and Kathleen L. Riley

Moisture and needle loss characteristics were similar for noble (Abies procera Red.) and Nordmann fir [Abies nordmanniana (Stev.) Spach.] Christmas trees that were displayed in water. After 42 days, trees still had xylem pressure potentials above -2 MPa. In addition, trees that were displayed in water had very little needle loss. When trees were displayed dry, noble and Nordmann fir had similar rates of moisture loss, drying to about -6 MPa in about 3 weeks. Although there was very little needle loss from any of the noble fir trees that were displayed dry, some Nordmann fir trees began to shed large numbers of green needles within 3 to 5 days, which significantly reduced postharvest quality. Unless sources of Nordmann fir are identified that have good needle retention characteristics, the needle loss problem observed when trees dry to about -3 MPa has the potential to limit the use of this species as a Christmas tree in the United States.

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Claudine Ménard and Blanche Dansereau

The general objective of this project was to study the impact of preharvest growth conditions [supplementary lighting as high-pressure sodium (HPS) or metal halide (MH) lights, and fertilization] on the postharvest quality of greenhouse roses. On 25 Jan. 1991, 288 plants (Rosa × hybrida `Royalty', `After-Glow', and `Obsession') of 3× caliber were planted in pots. A split-split plot experimental design made up of four blocks was used. Light treatments (three) were main plots while fertilization (two) and cultivars (three cultivars; four plants per cultivar) were subplots and sub-sub-plots, respectively. The two fertilization regimes used had respective N: K (in ppm) ratios of 150 N: 300 K (F1) and 300 N: 300 K (F2). Three light treatments [ambient light conditions (control) and ambient light conditions + PPF of 100 μmol·m-2·s-1 supplied by 400-W HPS or MH lamps] were compared. Yields were significantly affected by supplemental light treatments, fertilization, or both regardless of cultivars. Results indicate that stems harvested from HPS and MH light treatments combined with fertilization F1 had a longer vase life than those grown with F2. HPS lamps significantly increased vase life compared to MH. The level of abscisic acid (ABA) was higher under MH than under HPS lamps at time zero (T0), and this was similar for all cultivars. Furthermore, when supplemental light was combined with the F1 fertilization, a lower ABA level was obtained. Low ABA levels were correlated to longer vase life expectancy.

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Jennifer R. DeEll and Robert K. Prange

This paper reports preliminary results on the postharvest quality and storage characteristics of several scab-resistant apple cultivars. `Novaspy', `Moira', `Priscilla', `Novamac', `Nova Easygro', `Prima', and `Macfree' were stored for 3 months at 3C in air or standard controlled atmosphere (CA; 4.5% CO2 and 2.5% O2) in 1990 and for 4 months at 0C in air, standard CA, or low-O, CA (LO; 1.5% CO2 and 1.5% O2) in 1991. `Moira', `Prima', and `Priscilla' had very limited storage life. `Moira' was susceptible to bitterpit, scald, core browning, vascular breakdown, and storage rots. `Prima' was susceptible to core browning and vascular breakdown and had a high incidence of storage rots in air storage. `Priscilla' had several defects as a result of insect damage and was susceptible to bitterpit and scald. `Novaspy' stored very well and had virtually no physiological disorders or storage rots. `Novamac, `Nova Easygro', and `Macfree' developed few storage rots and were essentially at the end of their storage life after 4 months, regardless of storage conditions. Firmness in `Novamac' decreased substantially in all storage atmospheres, while `Nova Easygro' and `Macfree' were susceptible to core browning and scald.

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Aline Coelho Frasca, Monica Ozores-Hampton, John Scott, and Eugene McAvoy

was to evaluate the effects of two planting configurations (single and double row) and BL on CGH tomato growth, flowering pattern, yield, and postharvest quality. Materials and Methods Two experiments were conducted on a commercial farm in Immokalee

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Michael L. Parker and Sylvia M. Blankenship

A problem facing the peach industry is the ability to harvest field-ripened peaches and get them to market without significant softening or damage. However, getting mature peaches into marketing channels before significant softening occurs is a challenge. Our objectives were to evaluate two growth regulators to determine the effect on fruit quality and softening at harvest and after 1, 2, or 3 weeks in cold storage and to evaluate the effect on harvest date. The two products evaluated in this study were ReTain (aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG)—Abbott Labs) and EthylBloc (1-methylcyclopropene (MCP)—Biotechnologies for Horticulture). ReTain is a growth regulator that inhibits ethylene production and is used in commercial apple production to delay harvest. EthylBloc is applied as a gas and attaches to ethylene receptor sites which inhibits ethylene effects. A trial with preharvest foliar applications of ReTain and postharvest gassing with EthylBloc was initiated in July 1998 on `Contender' peaches. ReTain applications were made at 3-day intervals beginning 19 days before first harvest at the rate of 50 g a.i./acre. Applications 3 days before harvest resulted in increased flesh firmness at harvest and decreased ethylene evolution, which continued for up to 3 weeks in cold storage. Fruit were also gassed with 1 μl•L-1 (1ppm) EthylBloc in the laboratory the day following harvest for 24 h. Fruit treated with ReTain and EthylBloc had twice the flesh firmness of peaches that were not treated after 1 week in storage. ReTain applied 3 days before harvest delayed maturity. Further evaluation will be conducted in 1999.

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A. Klieber, L. Jewell, and N. Simbeya

Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. Italica group) was stored separately with ice and with an ice-replacement agent in polystyrene boxes and without an internal coolant in plastic-lined fiberboard boxes at 1C for 5 weeks and then under simulated marketing conditions at 20C for 2 days. Internal coolants did not improve quality, which was marginally reduced under all handling conditions, and they did increase postharvest costs.

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Rumphan Koslanund and Douglas. D. Archbold

150 POSTER SESSION 23 (Abstr. 386-400) Postharvest Physiology & Food Science Saturday, 31 July, 1:00-2:00 p.m.

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Gustavo H. de A. Teixeira, Valquiria G. Lopes, Luís C. Cunha Júnior, and José D.C. Pessoa

Nondestructive measurements of fruit and vegetable quality by means of NIR spectroscopy: A review Postharvest Biol. Technol. 46 99 118 Pacheco-Palencia, L.A. Hawken, P. Talcott, S.T. 2007 Phytochemical, antioxidant and pigment stability of açaí (Euterpe oleraceae