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A.L. Lancaster, C.E. Sams, D.E Deyton, and J.C. Cummins

Previous research indicated that soybean oil effectively controlled insects and mites on ornamentals. In some conditions, emulsified oil sprays have also been shown to cause phytotoxicity. The objective of this research was to determine which soybean oil emulsions and/or emulsifiers produced the least amount of phytotoxicity on miniature roses. Greenhouse-grown `Fashion' (pink), `Fiesta' (fuchsia), `Tender' (white), `Orange' (red), and `Bronze' (yellow) miniature roses in trade-gallon containers were sprayed once in late fall 1998. Treatments included: 1) water (control); 1% concentrations of commercial soybean oil formulations of 2) Soygold 1000 and 3) Soygold 2000 (Ag Environmental Products), 4) Emulsion A and 5) Emulsion B (Michigan Molecular Institute); 1% soybean oil emulsified with 6) 0.1% Ballistol (F.W. Klever, Germany), 7) 0.1% ERUCiCHEM (International Lubricants), 8) 0.1% ERUCiCHEM mixed with 0.01% lecithin (Chem Service), 9) 0.1% soy methylester (Michigan Molecular Institute), 10) 0.06% Atlox and 0.04% Tween (ICI Americas), 11) 0.1% E-Z-Mulse (Florida Chemical Company), or 12) 0.1% Latron B-1956 (Rohm & Haas). The emulsifiers were also tested alone for phytotoxicity to rose foliage. None of the emulsifiers caused significant damage. Soybean oil emulsified with E-Z-Mulse did not cause significant phytotoxicity as indicated by chlorosis of foliage. The commercially prepared Emulsion A, Soygold 1000 and Soygold 2000 caused slight phytotoxicity. Emulsion B and soybean oil plus Latron B-1956 caused moderate phytotoxicity. The soybean oil-Ballistol emulsion was the most phytotoxic. Cultivars varied in sensitivity (P < 0.01) to soybean oil emulsions (listed in the order of increasing sensitivity): `Orange', `Fashion', `Bronze', `Fiesta', and `Tender'.

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Chuck Ingels and John Roncoroni

growth was substantial, requiring three to four periods of extensive hand weeding until full establishment of the turf. In a New Zealand study, eight postemergent herbicides were evaluated for weed control and plant phytotoxicity after spraying over

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Patricia R. Knight*, Christine E. Coker, Benedict Posadas, and John M. Anderson

The IR-4 program works to identify potential minor-use horticultural chemicals and evaluate them for phytotoxicity and efficacy. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate phytotoxicity and weed control of three unlabeled herbicides on field production of Hemerocallis spp. `Ming Toy'. Ten-cm pots of `Ming Toy' were planted into the field 16 July 2001. Each plot consisted of 3 plants per treatment with 6 replications in a completely random design. Each herbicide was analyzed as a separate experiment. Herbicide treatments consisted of clopyralid (0.14, 0.28, 0.56, or 1.1 kg·ha-1 a.i.), clethodim (125, 250, or 500 mL·L-1 a.i.), or bentazon (1.1, 2.2, or 4.4 kg·ha-1 a.i.). Data collected included weed number, percentage of weed coverage (% weed coverage), and phytotoxicity and foliar color ratings for `Ming Toy'. Clopyralid reduced total weed number 90 DAT although % weed coverage was similar or worse compared to the control treatment. Phytotoxicity 90 DAT was not significant for plants treated with clopyralid, but foliar color ratings were reduced. Application of clethodim to `Ming Toy' plots, regardless of rate, resulted in similar weed numbers compared to the control 49 DAT. Clethodim application, regardless of rate, reduced % weed coverage compared to the control treatment. Phytotoxicity 90 DAT was not significant, regardless of herbicide treatment, but foliar color ratings were lower for herbicide treated plants compared to the control. Bentazon, regardless of rate, reduced weed number and % weed coverage 49 DAT compared to the control. Phytotoxicity was similar to the control for plants treated with 1.1 kg·ha-1 a.i.

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W.A. Bergfield, D.N. Sasseville, R.J. Kremer, and T. Souissi

Pesticides are used extensively in ornamental production. Studies of repeated pesticide applications indicate that microbial changes occur in the rhizosphere of the plant. In addition to controlling the target pest, often a population shift of bacteria may occur. This has been previously shown in research associated with leatherleaf fern [Rumohra adiantiformis (Forst.) Ching] and the fungicide benomyl. Rhizobacteria (root-associated bacteria) of anthurium (Anthurium andraeanum) were investigated with respect to total populations and isolates that are potentially phytotoxic. The anthurium sample roots were taken from commercial Jamaican production sites. The sites had either a benomyl or non-benomyl history. Rhizobacterial populations were estimated by dilution plating and subcultures were taken for a phytotoxicity bioassay. Micrographs of samples were prepared to examine treatment effects on the morphology of roots. Rhizobacteria populations were frequently at 106 colony forming units per gram fresh weight. Consistently, greater than 50% of the isolates from each treatment were potentially phytotoxic. However, in the benomyl history samples, there was a greater diversity of phytotoxic isolates.

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Larry D. Howery, Dale L. Nolte, Lawrence M. Sullivan, and Michael W. Kilby

The objective of our experiment was to determine if the application of two deer repellents to six grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.) caused significant phytotoxic effects, production losses, or altered the sensory characteristics of wine. We evaluated fifteen single vine plants from six different cultivars in a randomized block design that included the two repellent treatments and an untreated control. During spring 1997, we applied repellents biweekly from budbreak until flowering (2 Apr. to 14 May). Plantskyyd was applied more frequently than recommended by the product label (for trees) due to rapid emergence of unprotected shoot growth in vineyards. Hot Sauce and Plantskydd caused some initial minor phytotoxicity during 1997, however, the yield and phytotoxicity of treated plants were similar to controls by harvest. A panel detected a significant difference in the color, aroma, or taste of `Chardonnay' wine made from grapes treated with repellents compared to wine made from untreated control grapes (P = 0.001 for Hot Sauce; P = 0.05 for Plantskydd). We conclude that Hot Sauce and Plantskydd did not cause serious production losses or phytotoxic effects for the six cultivars treated. However, both Hot Sauce and Plantskydd significantly altered the sensory attributes of Chardonnay wine, which may preclude the use of chemical repellents in wine grape vineyards under the experimental conditions applied in our study.

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James D. Hansen, Harvey T. Chan Jr., Arnold H. Hara, and Victoria L. Tenbrink

Phytotoxicity from hydrogen cyanide (HCN) fumigation was measured in several varieties of Hawaiian cut flowers and foliage (Zingiberaceae, Heliconia, Orchidaceae, Marantaceae, Lycopodiaceae, Agavaceae, Proteaceae) as a potential disinfestation treatment. Concentrations tested were 2500, 3700, 4600, and 5500 ppm HCN for 30 min. All foliage and most heliconia were undamaged at fumigation levels of 5500 ppm HCN; most protea and `Midori' anthuriums were uninjured at 4600 pm HCN; red and pink ginger were uninjured at 3700 ppm HCN; and all pincushion protea showed phytotoxicity to HCN. Red ginger was quickly damaged when exposed to sunlight immediately after treatment at 2500 ppm HCN. No injury was observed in simulated shipment tests of red ginger and `Ozaki' anthuriums fumigated at 2500 ppm HCN. Wet, red ginger flowers longer than 6 cm were damaged at 2500 ppm HCN, whereas shorter flowers were uninjured. Wet `Ozaki' anthuriums showed phytotoxicity only at 4600 ppm HCN. Wet, treated lycopodium and bamboo orchid foliage was not injured. The number of marketable days and shelf life of the treated plant material were estimated from the visual ratings.

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David Staats, David Hillock, and James E. Klett

Five preemergence herbicides were applied to seven herbaceous perennials to evaluate weed control efficacy and phytotoxicity. Different species were used each year. The species used during 1992 were coneflower (Rudbeckia fulgida Ait. `Goldstrum'), common foxglove (Digitalis purpurea L. `Excelsior'), Shasta daisy (Leucanthemum ×superbum Bergmans `Alaska'), Stokes's aster (Stokesia laevis Greene `Blue Danube'), and avens (Geum Quellyon Sweet `Mrs. Bradshaw'). The species used in 1993 were woolly yarrow (Achillea tomentosa L.) and woolly thyme (Thymus pseudolanuginosus Ronn.). The herbicides and rates were napropamide (Devrinol 10G) at 4 and 8 lb a.i./acre; metolachlor (Pennant 5G) at 4 and 8 lb a.i./acre; oxyfluorfen+oryzalin (Rout 3G) at 3 and 12 lb a.i./acre; trifluralin (Treflan 5G) at 4 and 8 lb a.i./acre; and oxadiazon (Ronstar 2G) at 4 and 8 lb a.i./acre. Plants were grown in no. 1 containers and weed seeds were sown onto the substrate surface. Two control treatments, no herbicides but with weeds (weedy control), and no weeds or herbicides (weed-free control) also were evaluated. Weed control was effective and similar for all herbicides tested. Napropamide at 8 lb a.i./acre caused stunting in foxglove (20% to 45% less growth compared to weed-free control). Oxyfluorfen + oryzlain at 12 lb a.i./acre caused severe phytotoxicity (≈80% to 95% of plant injured) and stunted the growth (70% to 80% less growth, sometimes plant death) of woolly yarrow. Woolly thyme was stunted by all herbicides when applied at the recommended rates (42% to 97% less growth compared to control) except for oxadiazon and oxyfluorfen + oryzlain. Woolly thyme appeared to be more susceptible to phytotoxicity due to its less-vigorous growth habit and shallow, adventitious roots that were in contact with the herbicide.

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Hiram G. Larew and James C. Locke

The repellency and toxicity of a petroleum-based proprietary horticultural oil, Sunspray 6E Plus, was tested against the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vapor-ariorum (Westwood), on greenhouse-grown chrysanthemums [Dendranthema ×grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura cv. Iceberg]. A 2% (v/v) aqueous spray repelled adult whiteflies for at least 11 days after spraying and it was toxic to newly hatched and third stage larval whiteflies. No phytotoxicity was observed when four weekly sprays of 1%, 2%, and 4% oil were applied.

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Arnoldo Michel-Rosales, Javier Farias-Larios, Juan Alberto Osuna-Castro, Elpidio Peña-Beltrán, Juan Manuel González-González, and Héctor Javier Garibay-Bautista

At present, pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus Britt and Rose), a nonconventional crop and cactus native from Mexico, is considered very promising because of its high adaptability and tolerance to extreme agricultural conditions of tropical regions (poor soils, drought, and elevated temperatures), where they are cultivated. In addition, pitahaya fruit is well-accepted and identified as a nutraceutical food that lowers cholesterol and glucose levels in blood and might prevent stomach and colon cancers. However, little or no scientific information on chemical control alternatives of weeds in pitahaya commercial plantings have been generated. In this work, the phytotoxicity degree of seven commercial herbicides (metribuzin, glyphosate, glyphosate trimesium, paraqut, paraquat+diuron, atrazine, and halosulfuron methyl) in pitahaya plants grown under plant nursery conditions was assessed. A completely randomized design with 12 replications was used. The experimental unit was a flowerpot with a 5-month-old plants. The phytotoxicity degree was evaluated at 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after application using the scale proposed by EWRS. The herbicides that caused injury to the plants were paraqua+diuron (79%) and paraquat (77%), respectively. Metribuzin, halosulfuron-methyl, and atrazine did not cause any injury to the plants.

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James H. Aldrich and Jeffrey G. Norcini

Postemergence control of Phyllanthus urinaria L. (chamberbitter) in nursery and landscape plantings has been primarily limited to hand-weeding. Prodiamine was evaluated for postemergence control of chamberbitter and phytotoxicity to containerized ornamentals. On 20 June 1995, prodiamine at 0, 1.68, 3.36, or 6.72 kg a.i./ha was applied over-the-top to immature chamberbitter growing in 3.8-L containers of established Buddleia davidii Franch. `White Bouquet' Cuphea hyssopifolia HBK. `Desert Snow', Lantana camara L. `Irene', and Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Briq. `Lavender Weeping'. Weed-free checks were included. Applications were made with a compressed air backpack sprayer. There were four replications per treatment placed in a randomized complete block design by species. Plants were established and maintained on a container bed under full sun and overhead irrigation. Growth of and phytotoxicity to the ornamentals species, and percent coverage and number of chamberbitter, were recorded periodically for 14 weeks after treatment (WAT). Chamberbitter shoots were harvested for dry weight analysis 14 WAT. Prodiamine provided some postemergence control of chamberbitter. However, Cuphea and both Lantana species exhibited leaf distortion and/or delayed flowering.