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Liming Chen, Heping Zhu, Leona Horst, Matthew Wallhead, Michael Reding, and Amy Fulcher

‘Golden Delicious’ apple orchard. No difference was found in spray coverage on sterling silver linden ( Tilia tomentosa ) and northern red oak ( Quercus rubra ) trees in ornamental nurseries between intelligent and conventional spray systems ( Zhu et al

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Maria Gomez-del-Campo

The first results of studies with hedgerow or superhigh-density orchards (714 to 1975 olive/ha) were reported in Italy by Morettini (1972) . However, it was not until the 1990s that this production system was commercially adopted. Since then, it

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Quanen Guo, Tianwen Guo, Zhongming Ma, Zongxian Che, Lili Nan, Yiquan Wang, Jairo A. Palta, and Youcai Xiong

water with salt levels from 2.4 to 2.8 g·L –1 applied to irrigate field-grown fruit trees. This practice has accelerated soil secondary salinity in the orchards causing the wilting and dying of apple trees leaves since 1997. Soil salinization is a

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Michael W. Smith, William D. Goff, and M. Lenny Wells

Georgia is the largest pecan producer in the United States ( U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2009 ). A substantial amount of Georgia’s production is from orchards planted 60 to 100 years ago. Typically, these orchards were planted at 14.2 m × 14.2-m

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Husrev Mennan and Mathieu Ngouajio

), and hazelnut production has shown a general upward trend over the past decade ( Bozoğlu, 2002b ). The natural form of hazelnut is a multistemmed bush (called an ocak) grown in commercial orchards. In Turkey, hazelnut usually ripens from early to late

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Jens N. Wünsche and Alan N. Lakso

. Humiston; the helpful cooperation of Mr. Joe Nicholson of Red Jacket Orchards in Geneva, N.Y.; and the willingness of several commercial growers who allowed us to work in their orchards. Use of trade names does not imply endorsement of the products named

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M. Lenny Wells

States are relatively shallow and are comparatively low in organic matter. Most studies of pecan orchard soils have focused primarily on soil mineral nutrition status and their effects on pecan production. Studies regarding the biological parameters of

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J.H. Connell, F. Colbert, W. Krueger, D. Cudney, R. Gast, T. Bettner, and S. Dallman

A well maintained orchard floor is critical for insuring year-round orchard access and a clean almond harvest operation. This study compared three methods of orchard floor vegetation management over a 4-year period. The objective of this study was to evaluate cost effective vegetation management programs for difficult to control summer annual weeds while maintaining the population of desirable winter annual species. Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea) can be a major summer weed problem that interferes with almond harvesting operations. A low rate residual herbicide program controlled purslane more consistently than mechanical or chemical mowing programs. Desirable winter weed cover was preserved in all three management systems. The costs for each program were similar; however, there was a reduction in the number of operations required for both chemical mowing and low rate residual programs compared to the mechanical mowing program.

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S.J. McArtney and J.D. Obermiller

Most common (apple) orchard sprayers in the United States are of the axial fan air-assist type configured with disc/whirl plate conventional spray nozzles producing fine droplets with a mean volumetric droplet diameter within the range 200 to 300 μm

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Alberto Sánchez-Estrada and Julián Cuevas

year of light flowering and yield (“off years”) due to inhibition of flower induction caused by excessive previous crop load. Olive orchards in Spain and other Mediterranean countries are commonly monovarietal, despite the partial self