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Gerard W. Krewer, Thomas G. Beckman, Jose X. Chaparro, and Wayne B. Sherman

-pigmented flecks in the outer flesh on the sun-exposed side of the fruit, but there is little or no red in the flesh at the pit. Flesh texture is smooth and without strings but is clingy to the pit even when fully ripe. Flesh is firm with good sweetness (10% to 12

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Chad E. Finn, Bernadine C. Strik, Mary E. Peterson, Brian M. Yorgey, Patrick P. Moore, Patrick A. Jones, Jungmin Lee, and Robert R. Martin

‘Kokanee’ ( Fig. 1 ) is a new primocane-fruiting red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus L.) from the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA–ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR released in cooperation with the Oregon State

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Doron Holland, Kamel Hatib, Irit Bar-Ya'akov, Ehud Yonay, and Fathi Abd El Hadi

increasing. Red pomegranate cultivars are among the most commercially valuable cultivars because of their appealing red skin color and their good taste. One of the more recognized and popular pomegranate cultivars is ‘Wonderful’, with red fruit skin and dark-red

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Sasivimon Chomchalow, N.M. El Assi, S.A. Sargent, and J.K. Brecht

Green tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum `Sunny') fruit were stored at 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, or 12.5 °C (36.5, 41, 45.5, 50, or 54.5 °F) for 1, 3, 5, or 7 days to determine their sensitivity to chilling injury. In subsequent experiments, fruit were treated with ethylene at 20 °C (68 °F) until the breaker stage was reached, either before or after storage at 12.5 °C for 0, 1, 3, 5, or 7 days, or 2.5 °C for 3, 5, 7, or 9 days. Number of days to reach the breaker stage was used as an indicator of initial maturity. The chilling threshold temperature for green `Sunny' tomatoes was near 7.5 °C, with delayed ripening occurring in fruit stored for ≥5 days. Longer exposure times at chilling temperatures resulted in reduced marketable life, dull color, flaccidity, and delayed, uneven (blotchy) and nonuniform ripening. Chemical composition was generally unaffected by chilling, while loss of firmness as a result of chilling exposure time rather than chilling temperatures per se was observed. Increased storage time at either 2.5 or 12.5 °C accentuated the initial differences in fruit maturity and thus resulted in less uniform ripening, especially for tomatoes stored before ethylene treatment, but the effect was much greater following 2.5 °C storage. Exposure to 2.5 °C for as little as 3 days before ethylene treatment caused blotchy ripening and decay, and reduced the marketable life of tomatoes by half compared to storage at nonchilling temperature. Treatment with ethylene before storage prevented chilling injury for up to 5 days at 2.5 °C and prolonged the marketable life of tomatoes stored at either chilling or nonchilling temperature. Tomatoes became less responsive to poststorage ethylene treatment with increased storage time at either 2.5 or 12.5 °C. More mature tomatoes and those treated with ethylene before 12.5 °C storage lost less weight. Vitamin C content was lower in more mature tomatoes, but ethylene treatment resulted in better maintenance of vitamin C by shortening the time to reach the red stage. No other significant differences in color, firmness or chemical composition at the red stage were found between fruit with different initial maturities or fruit treated with ethylene before or after 2.5 or 12.5 °C storage. Treating green tomatoes with ethylene before storage or transport is preferable to poststorage treatment because of faster and more uniform ripening, and also increased marketable life and reduced risk of injury in the event of exposure to chilling temperatures.

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C.B. Watkins, J.E. Manzano-Mendez, J.F. Nock, J. Zhang, and K.E. Maloney

The tolerances of strawberry fruit to postharvest CO2 treatments is an important factor in assessing their potential for extended storage and marketing, but little information on variation among cultivars is available. We have assessed differences in responses of seven strawberry cultivars (`Annapolis', `Earliglow', `Kent', `Honeoye', `Cavendish', `Jewel', and `Governor Simcoe') to high-CO2 atmospheres. Fruit were harvested at the orange or white tip stage of ripeness, kept in air, or 20% CO2 (in air), and sampled after 1, 2, or 7 days for analysis of firmness, color, and volatile concentrations. Berries from each cultivar were collected on three separate harvest dates. Flesh firmness measurements of all cultivars tested were higher when treated with high CO2, but the degree of firming was affected by cultivar and assessment time. For example, firmness of `Annapolis', `Earliglow', `Honeoye', and `Jewel' was consistently enhanced by CO2, compared with air, during storage. In contrast, firmness of `Kent' was not affected by treatment after 1 day of storage and benefits were relatively slight at each subsequent removal. Red color development of the fruits was affected by cultivar and treatment period, but not by CO2 treatment. Volatile accumulation varied greatly among cultivars. `Annapolis' for example, appears very tolerant of high-CO2 treatment levels as indicated by low accumulations of ethanol, acetaldehyde, and ethyl acetate in the fruit. In contrast, `Kent' and `Governor Simcoe' accumulated large amounts of these compounds. This study indicates that differences in cultivar responses to CO2 should be considered by growers planning to store fruit under these conditions to extend marketing options. Research supported in part by the North American Strawberry Growers Association.

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Ksenija Gasic and John E. Preece

. Castagnoli, and A. Castagnoli. Gala × A3-7; USPP 24,091; 17 Dec. 2013. Fruit: conic, 71 mm height x 82 mm diameter, smooth skin with little bloom, ruby red blush over yellow-green ground color; firm, crisp, juicy, flesh with slightly acidic taste. Tree

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Jin-Hu Wu, A. Ross Ferguson, Brian G. Murray, Alison M. Duffy, Yilin Jia, Canhong Cheng, and Philip J. Martin

are often larger after chromosome doubling ( Campos et al., 2009 ; Wu et al., 2012 ; Ye et al., 2010 ). However, very little information has been available on the effects of increasing ploidy level on other attributes of fruit quality considered

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Thomas G. Beckman, Jose X. Chaparro, and Patrick J. Conner

some years, the cream white flesh contains red pigment flecks in the outer flesh, particularly on the sun-exposed side of the fruit, but there is little or no red in the flesh at the pit (the pit itself is red). Flesh texture is smooth, without strings

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Mark Joseph Stephens, Chaim Kempler, and Harvey K. Hall

‘Moutere’ ( Fig. 1 ) is a new floricane-fruiting red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus L.) cultivar from The Horticulture and Food Research Institute of New Zealand Limited (HortResearch). ‘Moutere’ produces high yields of attractive large-sized fruit

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Ksenija Gasic, John E. Preece, and David Karp

. Martinelli, F. Tagliani, D. Azzolini, P. Castagnoli, and A. Castagnoli. Gala × A3-7; selected 2004; USPP 24,550; 17 June 2014. Fruit: rounded and slightly flattened; 66 mm height × 83 mm diameter; skin smooth, with little bloom or greasiness; solid red