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impermeable film (VIF) mulches followed by hand weeding and compared those with methyl bromide under LDPE mulch. Cover crops were not effective in suppressing weeds. Net returns relative to methyl bromide were ≥$54/acre in plots that were covered with LDPE

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Melike Cirak and James R. Myers

, impermeable seedcoats were associated with closed hilum and/or micropyle anatomy (Ballard, 1973 ; Hyde, 1954 ; Rolston, 1978 ). The osteosclereid layer is similar in appearance to the macrosclereid layer, but cells are larger, with thicker walls and an

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Michael R. Evans, Matt Taylor, and Jeff Kuehny

highest water requirement and the lowest irrigation interval. Containers such as rice hull and OP47 containers that were relatively impermeable to water and had a similar water loss rate as their plastic controls had similar water requirements and

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Jeffrey G. Norcini and James H. Aldrich

.8%; Figs. 5 and 6 ). The widely accepted reason for the lack of staining is that the endosperm surrounding Coreopsis embryos ( Rukuni et al., 2007b ) and other Asteraceae ( Borthwick and Robbins, 1928 ; Kaye, 2002 ) is impermeable, or nearly so, to

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Maria Papafotiou and Aekaterini N. Martini

, also broke dormancy and induced 32% and 34% germination, respectively ( Nadjafi et al., 2006 ). Coat-imposed dormancy is caused by either the impermeability of the coat to water and/or gases, the mechanical prevention of radicle extension, or the

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Francesco Di Gioia, Monica Ozores-Hampton, Jason Hong, Nancy Kokalis-Burelle, Joseph Albano, Xin Zhao, Zack Black, Zhifeng Gao, Chris Wilson, John Thomas, Kelly Moore, Marilyn Swisher, Haichao Guo, and Erin N. Rosskopf

) conditions by 1) amending the soil with a readily decomposable C source to initiate rapid soil microbial growth and respiration, 2) covering the bed with oxygen impermeable polyethylene mulch to minimize gas exchange, and 3) irrigating the soil to saturate

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Gursewak Singh, William Patrick Wechter, Bhupinder Singh Farmaha, and Matthew Cutulle

impermeable film (TIF) black 1.25-mil polyfilm cover (TriEst Ag Group, Greenville, NC) and sealed using heavy-duty rubber bands (Global Industries, Buford, GA). Polyfilm cover was used to limit the supply of oxygen. Pots were arranged in a completely

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Feras Almasri, Husein A. Ajwa, Sanjai J. Parikh, and Kassim Al-Khatib

could provide better fumigant soil distribution by physical means such as multiple drip lines, using totally impermeable film, and adjusting water application rates and volumes ( Nelson et al., 2013 ; Papiernik et al., 2004 ; Yates et al., 2002 ). Such

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Charles E. Barrett, Lincoln Zotarelli, Lucas G. Paranhos, Peter Dittmar, Clyde W. Fraisse, and John VanSickle

irrigation that relies on large volumes of water ( Dukes et al., 2010 ) and often a shallow semi-impermeable soil layer. In a seepage system, the water table is perched on top of the semi-impermeable soil layer and raised to the crop root zone. This type of

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Gary E. Vallad, Kenneth L. Pernezny, Botond Balogh, Aimin Wen, Jose Francisco L. Figueiredo, Jeffrey B. Jones, Timur Momol, Rosa M. Muchovej, Nikol Havranek, Nadia Abdallah, Steve Olson, and Pamela D. Roberts

the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus -resistant cv. SecuriTY 28 were transplanted at 45-cm spacing to 6.4-m plots along 91.5-m-long, raised beds with 1.5-m center-to-center bed spacing. Beds were covered with a silver, virtually impermeable film mulch