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John L. Norelli and Herb S. Aldwinckle

Regeneration from apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) M.26 leaf tissue was completely inhibited by (μg·ml-1) 1 geneticin, 5 kanamycin, 10 to 25 paromomycin, and 100 neomycin. nptII-transgenic M.26 had an increased tolerance to all four of the antibiotics tested, with inhibition of regeneration occurring at (μg·ml-l) 2.5 geneticin, 100 kanamycin, 375 paromomycin, and 375 neomycin. Paromomycin (100 to 250 μg·ml-l) and neomycin (250 μg·ml-1) significantly increased the amount of regeneration from nptII-transgenic M.26 apple leaf tissue. p35SGUS-INT, a plasmid with a chimeric b -glucuronidase gene containing a plant intron, was useful for studying the early events of apple transformation by eliminating GUS expression from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. It was used to determine that the optimal aminoglycoside concentrations for the selection of nptII-transgenic M.26 cells were (μg·ml-1) 2.5 to 16 kanamycin, 63 to 100 neomycin, and 25 to 63 paromomycin. Geneticin was unsuitable as a selective agent.

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John Norelli, JoAnn Mills, and Herb Aldwinckle

In vitro–grown leaves of Malus ×domestica Borkh. cv. Royal Gala were either crush-wounded with forceps, cut, or left whole, and then inoculated with A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 (p35SGUS_INT), with and without vacuum infiltration. Transformation was quantified 13 days after inoculation by determining the rate of β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity. Leaf wounding by crushing with nontraumatic forceps significantly increased transformation when compared with cutting leaves. Vacuum infiltration of inoculum had no effect on transformation.

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Yasseen Mohamed-Yasseen

176 POSTER SESSION 24 (Abstr. 860-869) Herbs

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Winthrop B. Phippen and James E. Simon

102 POSTER SESSION 4D (Abstr. 211–217) Growth & Development–Vegetables/Herbs

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B.H. Alkire and J.E. Simon

An experimental steam distillation unit has been designed, built, and tested for the extraction of essential oils from peppermint and spearmint. The unit, using a 130-gal (510-liter) distillation tank, is intermediate in size between laboratory-scale extractors and commercial-sized distilleries, yet provides oil in sufficient quantity for industrial evaluation. The entire apparatus-a diesel-fuel-fired boiler, extraction vessel, condenser, and oil collector-is trailer-mounted, making it transportable to commercial farms or research stations. Percentage yields of oil per dry weight from the unit were slightly less than from laboratory hydrodistillations, but oil quality and terpene composition were similar.

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James Luby, Philip Forsline, Herb Aldwinckle, Vincent Bus, and Martin Geibel

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Gennaro Fazio, Herb S. Aldwinckle, Terence L. Robinson, and James Cummins

The Geneva® Apple Rootstock Breeding program initiated in 1968 by Cummins and Aldwinckle of Cornell University and continued as a joint breeding program with the USDA-ARS since 1998, has released a new dwarf apple rootstock named Geneva® 41 or G.41. G.41 (a progeny from a 1975 cross of `Malling 27' × `Robusta 5') is a selection that has been tested at the N.Y. State Agricultural Experiment Station, in commercial orchards in the United States, and at research stations across the United States, Canada, and France. G.41 is a fully dwarfing rootstock with vigor similar to M.9 T337, but with less vigor than M.9 Pajam2. It is highly resistant to fire blight and Phytophthora with no tree death from these diseases in field trials or inoculated experiments. G.41 has also shown tolerance to replant disease. Its precocity and productivity have been exceptional, equaling M.9 in all trials and surpassing M.9 in some trials. It also confers excellent fruit size and induces wide crotch angles in the scion. It appears to be very winter hardy and showed no damage following the test winter of 1994 in New York. Propagation by layering in the stool bed G.41 is not consistent and may require higher layering planting densities or tissue culture mother plants to improve its rooting. G.41 also produces some side shoots in the stool bed. The nursery liners of G.41 produce a smaller tree than G.16 liners, but similar to M.9, which is very acceptable. Unlike G.16, G.41 is not sensitive to latent viruses. G.41 has similar graft union strength to M.9 and requires a trellis or individual tree stake when planted in the orchard. Suggested orchards planting densities with this rootstock are 2,000-4,000 trees/ha. This rootstock has been released for propagation and commercial sale by licensed nurseries.

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Hany M. El Naggar, Paul E. Read, and Susan L. Cuppett

Poster Session 39—Herbs, Spices, and Medicinals 2 20 July 2005, 1:15–2:00 p.m. Poster Hall–Ballroom E/F

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Fredy R. Romero, Kathleen Delate, and David J. Hannapel

Poster Session 39—Herbs, Spices, and Medicinals 2 20 July 2005, 1:15–2:00 p.m. Poster Hall–Ballroom E/F

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Kim Patten, John Wang, Fred Katz, Don Riemer, Chuck Kusek, and Herb Hopen

Tolerance of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) at different phenological stages to the postemergent broadleaf herbicide clopyralid (0.21 or 0.42 kg a.i./ha) was evaluated in Washington, New Jersey, Massachusetts, and Wisconsin. Tolerance varied among states, rates, and application times. Applications made during early shoot growth, especially at the high rate, usually resulted in the most crop injury (leaf cupping and epinasty and reduced yield); while applications at the low rate made after vegetative development occurred usually resulted in less or no injury. No phytotoxicity occurred when applications were made before shoot growth (Washington and New Jersey). Chemical name used: 3,6-dichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid (clopyralid).