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Kerry M. Strope and Mark S. Strefeler

Four heat-tolerant (`Celebration Cherry Red', `Celebration Rose', `Lasting Impressions Shadow', and `Paradise Moorea') and three non-heat-tolerant (`Lasting Impressions Twilight', `Danziger Blues', and `Pure Beauty Prepona') cultivars were identified using a Weighted Base Selection Index. These cultivars were used as parents in a full diallel crossing block with reciprocals and selfs. Progeny from five parents (25 crosses) were evaluated for heat tolerance. Four floral (fl ower number, flower diameter, flower bud number, and floral dry weight) and five vegetative characteristics (visual rating, leaf size rating, vegetative dry weight, branch number, and node number) were evaluated with emphasis placed on continued flowering under long-term heat stress. In addition, progeny from all seven parents (49 crosses) were evaluated for inheritance of adaxial leaf color, abaxial leaf color, vein color, and flower color. Significant differences were found in each data category (P < 0.001) with the exception of node number, which was not significant. Flower number varied from 0 to 2, flower diameter varied from 0 to 41 mm, floral dry weight varied from 14 to 105 mg, bud number varied from 0 to 12, branch number varied from 5 to 15, and vegetative dry weight varied from 220 to 607 mg. General and specific combining abilities of the parents were evaluated as was heritability. It was found that the four heat-tolerant cultivars had higher general combining abilities. Heat tolerance has low heritability and is controlled by many genes.

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Thomas G. Ranney, John M. Ruter, and Clifford D. Ruth

136 ORAL SESSION 29 (Abstr. 205–210) Stress–Heat and Water

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Abdur Rab and Mikal E. Saltveit

Chilling sensitivity increased as the radicle of germinating corn (Zea mays L. `Jubilee' hybrid), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. `Poinsett 76'), mung bean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb. `Berkin'), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. `Rio Grande') seeds increased in length from 1 to 7 mm. In contrast, radicles of germinating okra (Hibiscus esculentus L. `Clemson' spineless) seeds exhibited similar levels of chilling sensitivity at all radicle lengths. The degree of chilling sensitivity varied among the species in relation to time required to elicit a significant response and the magnitude of the elicited response. Based on subsequent radicle elongation, okra and cucumber were the most sensitive species to chilling at 2.5C for 96 h; tomato and corn were relatively less sensitive, and mung bean was the least sensitive. This pattern of sensitivities changed when other criteria were used to evaluate chilling sensitivity. The development of lateral roots decreased with prolonged chilling in all species, except for corn in which the apical tip remained viable even after 192 h of chilling. Heat shock (0 to 10 min at 45C) induced chilling tolerance in all species, except okra. In okra, neither increasing the heat shock temperature nor decreasing the severity of chilling (i.e., temperature and duration of exposure) resulted in a significant reduction in chilling injury. The differential induction of heat shock proteins in okra and the other species is discussed.

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Tim D. Davis, Daksha Sankhla, and Narendra Sankhla

Carnation cultivars `German Red' and `Chabaud' were planted in the field in Dallas, Texas, on 26 May 1994. During the subsequent 3 months, the average daily high temperature was 33C, and the average daily low temperature was 22C. `German Red' plants increased in height and diameter several-fold during this period. In contrast, `Chabaud' did not increase in height or diameter. `German Red' plants began flowering in early August, and by 2 Sept., all of the plants were blooming. None of the `Chabaud' plants produced flowers, and only 50% of the original plants were still alive on 2 Sept. Mean shoot dry weight per plant on 2 Sept. was 71.6 g for `German Red' and only 2.4 g for `Chabaud'. These results document the extraordinary heat tolerance of `German Red' carnation. This plant not only survived the summer, but also grew and began blooming during the hottest time of the year.

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Katy M. Rainey* and Phillip D. Griffiths

High temperatures (>30°C day and/or >20°C night) in tropical lowlands and production areas in temperate zones reduce yield and quality in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Tepary bean (P. acutifolius A. Gray) is a crop adapted to hot arid climates and is grown in the American Southwest and parts of Mexico under temperatures that are too high for pod formation in common bean. Interspecific hybridization may enable transfer of heat tolerance traits from tepary bean to common bean. Twenty-five tepary bean plant introductions (PI) with the ability to set seed under controlled-environment conditions were evaluated under high (35 °C day/32 °C night) and control (27 °C day/24 °C night) temperature treatments during reproductive development. Four accessions (PI 200902, PI 312637, PI 440788, and PI 440789) exhibited normal pod formation and comparatively high yield when exposed to high temperature, while common bean controls displayed zero pod and seed set. These four PIs showed a mean decrease in seed yield of 72.9% from control to high temperature treatment, as compared to 90.3% among all tepary beans. These accessions were hybridized with the dry bean cultivar `ICA Pijao', and the heat-tolerant bean cultivars `Carson' and `CELRK' and breeding line `Cornell 503'. Immature embryos were cultured to obtain interspecific hybrids. Fertility of F1 hybrids and generation of backcrosses are discussed.

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Abdur Rab and Mikal E. Saltveit

The sensitivity of corn, cucumber, mung bean, and tomato seedling radicles to chilling (i.e., inhibition of subsequent elongation at 25 C after chilling at 2.5 C) was greater for radicles 5 to 7 mm long than for radicles 1 mm long. In contrast, radicles of germinating okra seeds had a similar level of chilling inhibition (i.e., 70% to 90%) at lengths of 1 to 7 mm. For seeds with 1-mm-long radicles, subsequent radicle elongation for cucumber was inhibited only 2% by 72 hours of chilling at 2.5 C, while it was inhibited about 20% for corn, mung bean, and tomato. For seeds with 5- to 7-mm-long radicles, chilling inhibition was 50% to 70% for corn, mung bean, and tomato and 80% to 90% for cucumber and okra. The degree of chilling sensitivity varied among species in relation to time required to elicit a significant response and the magnitude of the elicited response. The development of lateral roots decreased with prolonged chilling in all species. Heat shock (i.e., 4 to 10 minutes at 45 C) induced chilling tolerance in all species except okra. In okra, neither increasing the heat-shock temperature nor decreasing the severity of chilling (i.e., temperature and duration of exposure) significantly reduced chilling injury.

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Xunzhong Zhang, E.H. Ervin, and R.E. Schmidt

Decline of sod quality during the transportation, storage, and transplant stages of sale is a primary economic concern of sod producers. However, the mechanisms of extending sod quality during storage, transportation, and transplantation remain unclear. This study was conducted to investigate the influences of selected plant metabolic enhancers (PMEs) seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum Jol.) extract (SWE), humic acid [93% a.i. (HA)], and propiconazole (PPC), on sod tolerance to stress during storage and posttransplant root growth of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) sod. The SWE + HA, and PPC were applied alone, or in a combination, to tall fescue 2 weeks before harvest. Photochemical efficiency (PE) of photosystem II was measured immediately before harvest. The harvested sod was subjected to high temperature stress (40 °C) for 72 or 96 hours. The heated sod was replanted in the field and posttransplant injury and root strength were determined. On average over 1999 and 2000, application of SWE (50 mg·m-2) + HA (150 mg·m-2), PPC (0.30 mL·m-2), and a combination of SWE + HA with PPC (0.15 mL·m-2), enhanced PE of preharvest sod by 8.5%, 9.1%, and 11.2%, respectively, and increased posttransplant rooting by 20.6%, 34.6%, and 20.2%, respectively. All PME treatments reduced visual injury except SWE + HA and SWE + HA + PPC in 1999. Extension of heat duration from 72 to 96 hours caused significantly more injury to the sod and reduced posttransplant rooting by 22.9% averaged over 2 years. The data suggest that foliar application of SWE + HA, PPC alone, or in a combination with SWE + HA, may reduce shipment heat injury and improve posttransplant rooting and quality of tall fescue sod. Chemical name used: 1-(2-(2,4-dichloropheny)-4-propyl-1,3-dioxolan-2yl)methyl-1-H-1,2,4-triazole [propiconazole (PPC)].

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Thomas G. Ranney and Mary M. Peet

Leaf gas-exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements were used as indexes for evaluating heat tolerance among five taxa of birch: paper (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), European (B. pendula Roth.), Japanese (B. platyphylla var. japonica Hara. cv. Whitespire), Himalayan (B. jacquemontii Spach.), and river (B. nigra L. cv. Heritage). Gas-exchange measurements were conducted on individual leaves at temperatures ranging from 25 to 40C. River birch maintained the highest net photosynthetic rates (Pn) at high temperatures, while Pn of paper birch was reduced the most. Further study of river and paper birch indicated that the reduced Pn at high temperatures and the differential sensitivity between taxa resulted from several factors. Inhibition of Pn at higher temperatures was due largely to nonstomatal limitations for both taxa. Increases in respiration rates, decreases in maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem (PS) II (F V/F M), and possible reductions in light energy directed to PS II (F 0 quenching) were apparent for both taxa. The capacity of river birch to maintain greater Pn at higher temperatures seemed to result from a lower Q10 for dark respiration and possibly greater thermotolerance of the Calvin cycle as indicated by a lack of nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching with increasing temperatures. Thermal injury, as indicated by a rapid increase in minimal, dark-acclimated (F 0) fluorescence, was not evident for either paper or river birch until temperatures reached ≈49C and was similar for both taxa.

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Meng-Yee Tee and Paul H. Jennings

Chilling injury can be a serious problem during field germination of sensitive crop species. Because heat shock has been shown to induce chilling tolerance of germinating cucumber seeds, an experiment was initiated to determine the effectiveness of other treatments. Cucumber seeds germinated 20 to 24 h were either heat-shocked at 50C for 2 min or treated with ABA or salicylic acid for 4 h. Following treatment, the germinated seeds were chilled at 2C for 96, 120, or 144 h and then incubated at 25C to determine growth effects on the developing root. All treatments induced chilling tolerance compared to the controls, with ABA and heat shock being most effective after chilling. There did not appear to be an additive response when heat shock was used in combination with ABA. The evidence for different treatment mechanisms will be discussed.

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Rajeev Arora, S.P. Dharmalingam, and B.C. Bearce

136 ORAL SESSION 29 (Abstr. 205–210) Stress–Heat and Water