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Tomohiro Jishi, Ryo Matsuda, and Kazuhiro Fujiwara

to the promotion of plant growth. Chen et al. (2017 ) grew leaf lettuce with a 16-h light/8-h dark cycle and observed that under alternating blue and red light irradiation the leaves were thinly expanded compared with those under simultaneous blue

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Liang Zheng, Huaming He, and Weitang Song

). Phytochrome. Phytochromes are the first identified light-sensing molecules in plants. Phytochromes are encoded by the PHYA-PHYE small gene family in most plant species and control processes of the entire plant life cycle ( Galvão and Fankhauser, 2015

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Woei-Jiun Guo, Yu-Zu Lin, and Nean Lee

leaf discs, ≈0.1 g each in fresh weight (FW), were collected from the leaf 30 min before the light (pre-dawn) and the dark period (pre-dusk). Samples were frozen immediately in liquid N 2 and stored at –50 °C for further analyses as described

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Geoffrey Weaver and Marc W. van Iersel

for carbohydrate production in the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle. However, not all light absorbed by photosynthetic pigments is used to drive the light reactions; a significant amount is dissipated as heat, and a small fraction is reemitted as

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Cynthia B. McKenney, Sandra A. Balch, and Dick L. Auld

composes a dense crown covered with dark purple florets (purple–violet group 82A) with a light-yellow eye (yellow group 8D) ( Royal Horticulture Society, 2001 ). The spike inflorescence is composed of 20 to 30 florets. ‘Raider Amethyst’ blooms from late

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Katrine Heinsvig Kjaer and Carl-Otto Ottosen

been shown for plants grown in conditions in which light–dark cycles were unmatched to the endogenous circadian clock period of 24 h in plant mutants ( Dodd et al., 2005 ) and in wild-type plants in short-day conditions ( Hurd, 1973 ; Langton et al

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Gioia D. Massa, Hyeon-Hye Kim, Raymond M. Wheeler, and Cary A. Mitchell

under a 24-h photoperiod at 350 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 PPF in each case. The findings showed that wheat could complete a life cycle with red light alone, although added blue light produced larger plants with greater numbers of seeds. One percent blue (≈3

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Joshua K. Craver, Joshua R. Gerovac, Roberto G. Lopez, and Dean A. Kopsell

, and sometimes BC, are quickly converted to ZEA to maintain the integrity of the D1 protein of PSII ( Depka et al., 1998 ; Havaux et al., 2007 ; Polle et al., 2001 ). It may be possible that changes in light quality from SS LEDs can impact ZEA cycling

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Zhong-Hua Bian, Rui-Feng Cheng, Qi-Chang Yang, Jun Wang, and Chungui Lu

. Hort. 172 168 175 Cheung, C.Y.M. Poolman, M.G. Fell, D.A. Ratcliffe, R.G. Sweetlove, L.J. 2014 A diel flux balance model captures interactions between light and dark metabolism during day-night cycles in C 3 and crassulacean acid metabolism leaves

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Young-Hwan Shin, Rui Yang, Yun-Long Shi, Xu-Min Li, Qiu-Yue Fu, Jian-Liang Lu, Jian-Hui Ye, Kai-Rong Wang, Shi-Cheng Ma, Xin-Qiang Zheng, and Yue-Rong Liang

mechanism involves the conversion of V into Z. The interconversion of violaxanthin (V), antheraxanthin (A), and zeaxanthin (Z) (VAZ-cycle) plays an important role in NPQ. During exposure to excessive light, the enzyme violaxanthin deepoxidase (VDE) is