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Leora Radetsky, Jaimin S. Patel, and Mark S. Rea

-López et al., 2014 ). Cruickshank (1963) found that brief, intermittent light treatments (<1 h light with <2 h dark) using broadband spectra at moderate irradiances were more effective at suppressing sporulation of Peronospora tabacina (tobacco DM

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Kui Lin, Zhi Huang, and Yong Xu

lights are 658, 518, and 445 nm, respectively, and the full width at half maximum of them is 22 nm. Lighting for all treatments was set at a 16-h photoperiod (16 h light/8 h dark) and the photosynthetic photon flux levels were measured at the top of the

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Gioia Massa, Thomas Graham, Tim Haire, Cedric Flemming II, Gerard Newsham, and Raymond Wheeler

cycle ( Morrow, 2008 ; Yeh and Chung, 2009 ). Light-emitting diodes are easily configured into different form factors and, for example, have been used to provide intracanopy lighting where whole plant canopies can be irradiated from both above and from

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Mordecai J. Jaffe and A. Carl Leopold

depth has been suggested to occur by light reaching either the bulb or the leaf that arises from the bulb ( Iziro, 1983 ; Putz, 1996a ; Putz et al., 1997 ; Rimbach, 1898 ). Temperature cycling also may enhance root contraction in some species ( Halevy

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Peitao Lü, Xinmin Huang, Hongmei Li, Jiping Liu, Shenggen He, Daryl C. Joyce, and Zhaoqi Zhang

, trends in the rates of water uptake and water loss of the cut lily flower were generally similar to those of the cut rose. Highest water uptake rates were typically in the light and typically lowest in the dark on 24 h cycles over 6 d ( Fig. 3C ). Water

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Tessa Pocock

., 2010 ). The first PR class, PHY, senses the ratio of red and far red (FR) light ( Casal 2000 ; Chen and Chory, 2011 ; Franklin and Quail, 2010 ). The biologically inactive P r form is synthesized in the dark and is converted to P fr within 1 to 2

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Jiunn-Yan Hou, Tim L. Setter, and Yao-Chien Alex Chang

., 2001 ), light intensity ( Lin and Hsu, 2004 ), growth stage ( Hsu, 2007 ), and diurnal cycle ( Pollet et al., 2009 ) on chlorophyll fluorescence changes in Phalaenopsis had been studied. The quantum efficiency of Phalaenopsis equestris leaf was

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Krishna Nemali and Marc W. van Iersel

programmed to light and dark cycles of 4 and 2 h, respectively. This enabled us to start any drought cycle on the same day after rehydrating wilted plants from the previous cycle. During the gas exchange study, the DLI during 16 h of light was maintained

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Tomohiro Jishi, Ryo Matsuda, and Kazuhiro Fujiwara

to the promotion of plant growth. Chen et al. (2017 ) grew leaf lettuce with a 16-h light/8-h dark cycle and observed that under alternating blue and red light irradiation the leaves were thinly expanded compared with those under simultaneous blue

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Liang Zheng, Huaming He, and Weitang Song

). Phytochrome. Phytochromes are the first identified light-sensing molecules in plants. Phytochromes are encoded by the PHYA-PHYE small gene family in most plant species and control processes of the entire plant life cycle ( Galvão and Fankhauser, 2015