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David Llewellyn, Youbin Zheng, and Mike Dixon

preferential absorption of red light by the upper plant canopy. It has been postulated, by various growers, that reductions in plant quality when grown below HB crops are due to a combination of insufficient PAR and reductions in the R:FR at the lower crop

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Christopher J. Currey and Roberto G. Lopez

-acclimated for 1200 s within the manufacturer's plastic and foam clips before measurements were recorded. Fluorescence was measured by opening the shutter clip and exposing the leaf for 5 s to light with a peak wavelength of 650 nm that was provided at 3000 μmol

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Po-Lung Chia and Chieri Kubota

absorption spectra in the red [wavelengths of 600 to 700 nm (R)] and far-red [700 to 800 nm (FR)] regions ( Hendricks et al., 1962 ; Siegelman et al., 1966 ). Irradiation with R or FR light changes the phytochrome isoform ratio and alters biochemical and

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Alexander G. Litvin, Christopher J. Currey, and Lester A. Wilson

lighting. They noted higher efficiency LED lamps were currently on the market and could achieve up to 4 g·kWh –1 . Specific wavelengths of light common in LEDs, such as B and R, play unique roles in plant responses. For example, R light contributes to

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Celina Gómez, Robert C. Morrow, C. Michael Bourget, Gioia D. Massa, and Cary A. Mitchell

28 Jan. 2012. Supplemental lighting treatments were kept at an average daily light integral of 9 mol·m −2 ·d −1 from either 1000-W HPS-OH lamps or LED-ICL towers programmed to mix 95% red (peak wavelength at 627 nm) and 5% blue (peak wavelength at

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Qinglu Ying, Yun Kong, and Youbin Zheng

stability Dev. Cell 44 29 41.e4 Ying, Q. Kong, Y. Zheng, Y. 2020 Applying blue light alone, or in combination with far-red light, during nighttime increases elongation without compromising yield and quality of indoor-grown microgreens HortScience 55 876 881

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Steven P. Arthurs, Robert H. Stamps, and Frank F. Giglia

filter solar radiation to promote specific wavelengths of light ( Castellano et al., 2008b ; Stamps, 2009 ). The combination of light-scattering spectral manipulation can modify desirable plant growth characteristics. For example, compared with black

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Heidi M. Wollaeger and Erik S. Runkle

( Oryza sativa ) ( Ohashi-Kaneko et al., 2006 ), and strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa ) ( Nhut et al., 2003 ) showed that plants grown under a combination of wavebands, particularly including B light, have growth characteristics more similar to those

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Jasmine J. Mah, David Llewellyn, and Youbin Zheng

canopies, as green leaves absorb light strongly within the range of PAR (400–700 nm), including R, whereas higher proportions of wavelengths longer than 700 nm are either reflected or transmitted to the surrounding environment ( Gates et al., 1965

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Thitipat Weeplian, Tsair-Bor Yen, and Yunn-Shy Ho

growth, and development ( Folta and Childers, 2008 ; Liao et al., 2006 ; Samuolienė et al., 2011 ; von Arnim and Deng, 1996 ). Natural light received by a plant is visible light in the range of wavelengths of 400–700 nm, and this range of light is