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Henry K. Ngugi and James R. Schupp

of infection. Several factors must coincide and be optimal for a fire blight epidemic to occur. These include: presence of inoculum; susceptible host tissue (open receptive flowers for blossom strikes and wounded tissue for shoot strikes); weather

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Emma C. Lookabaugh, Brian Whipker, and Barbara B. Shew

. Host resistance is among the most important tools for integrated disease management, but disease resistance has not been widely used in floricultural crops, including poinsettia ( Daughtrey and Benson, 2005 ). Commercial poinsettia cultivars have not

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Katharina S. Wigg and Irwin L. Goldman

023.pdf > Harveson, R.M. 2003 Common weeds serving as alternate hosts for pathogens of dry-edible beans and sugar beets in the Nebraska Panhandle Phytopathology 93 S34 doi: 10.1094/PHYTO.2003.93.6.S1 Harveson, R.M. Hein, G.L. Smith, J.A. Wilson, R

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Virginia M. Moore and William F. Tracy

more than 200 host plants, including important crops as well as weedy and uncultivated plants ( Hardwick, 1965 ; Huang, 2015 ; Kennedy and Storer, 2000 ; Neunzig, 1963 ; Olmstead et al., 2016 ; Sudbrink and Grant, 1995 ). This ubiquity limits the

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Gabriele Gusmini, Luis A. Rivera-Burgos, and Todd C. Wehner

inoculation. We incubated the Nalgene pans for 2–4 weeks at 24 ± 2 °C under alternating periods of 12 h of fluorescent light (40–90 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 photosynthetic photon flux density) and 12 h of darkness until pycnidia formed. For all inoculations, we

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Ana Regia Alves de Araújo Hendges, Jose Wagner da Silva Melo, Marcelo de Almeida Guimaraes, and Janiquelle da Silva Rabelo

adaptable among aphids, alternating its populations among its various hosts, and remaining more or less active throughout the year depending on temperature conditions ( Kasprowicz et al., 2008 ; Van Emden et al., 1969 ). Similarly, among the several

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Gurjit Singh, Shimat V. Joseph, and Brian Schwartz

is known to damage more than 50 plant species, including corn, sorghum, cotton, rice, and bermudagrass ( Luginbill, 1928 ). Multiple overlapping generations of S. frugiperda occur within 1 year and infest several host species. Resistance to older

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Luis A. Rivera-Burgos, Emily J. Silverman, and Todd C. Wehner

mL of 25% potato dextrose broth (PDB) and two to three plugs of PDA cultures of S . cucurbitacearum . The flasks containing liquid culture were incubated in a shaker at 180 RPM for 8 to 10 d at 24 ± 2 °C under alternating periods of 12 h of

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Jessica Gaus Barb, Dennis J. Werner, and Shyamalrau P. Tallury

, herbaceous plants, shrubs, small trees, or vines with alternate leaves showing pinnate venation. Flowers characteristically form large homogamous discoid heads with one to many perfect flowers that are deep purplish red to blue or sometimes white ( Jones

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Jaroslav Ďurkovič, František Kačík, Miroslava Mamoňová, Monika Kardošová, Roman Longauer, and Jana Krajňáková

rarely present. Vessel walls had alternately arranged intervessel pits, and vessel-ray pits had elongated apertures ( Fig. 1B and E ). In narrow latewood vessels, perforation plates were simple, and helical thickenings were densely present throughout the