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Soohyun Kang, Yating Zhang, Yuqi Zhang, Jie Zou, Qichang Yang, and Tao Li

; Verdaguer et al., 2017 ). Recently, the fast development of plant factories with artificial light (mainly LED) has led to the possibility that plants are cultivated in varying light spectra. However, the vast majority of research with lighting in plant

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Joshua K. Craver, Joshua R. Gerovac, Roberto G. Lopez, and Dean A. Kopsell

using closed irrigation systems and capillary mats, many novel methods for lighting and other environmental controls are being investigated ( Resh, 2013 ). Plant factories have been a prospective means of producing various vegetables and herbs in areas

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Jayesh B. Samtani, Curt R. Rom, Heather Friedrich, Steven A. Fennimore, Chad E. Finn, Andrew Petran, Russell W. Wallace, Marvin P. Pritts, Gina Fernandez, Carlene A. Chase, Chieri Kubota, and Brad Bergefurd

effective ( Kroggel, 2014 ; Stanley, 1998 ). Water and fertilizer solutions are recycled and efficient light-emitting diode (LED) lighting is used. However, the economic feasibility of such protected systems has not been demonstrated. The current PYO market

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Kevin M. Folta and Sofia D. Carvalho

Over the last decade there has been significant effort in improving narrow-bandwidth, solid-state lighting systems for plant growth in controlled environments. Development of the electronics and light sources has followed the convention that plants

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James E. Faust and Joanne Logan

replacing solar radiation entirely with artificial light sources. The advent of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) into horticulture production systems in recent years has created the opportunity to provide upward of 40–50 mol·m −2 ·d −1 in sole-source lighting

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Joshua R. Gerovac, Joshua K. Craver, Jennifer K. Boldt, and Roberto G. Lopez

hydroponics and SS lighting in multilayer vertical growing systems ( Resh, 2013 ). Multilayer vertical growing systems using SS lighting were first developed and implemented commercially in Japan in the early 2000s ( Goto, 2012 ). Although fluorescent lamps

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Jiffinvir Khosa, Robyn Lee, Srishti Joshi, Martin Shaw, John McCallum, and Richard Macknight

Agronomy of onions, p. 187–232. In: H.D. Rabinowitch and L. Currah (eds.). Allium crop science: recent advances. CABI, Wallingford, UK Warrington, I.J. Dixon, T. Robotham, R.W. Rook, D.A. 1978 Lighting systems in major New Zealand controlled environment

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Joshua K. Craver, Jennifer K. Boldt, and Roberto G. Lopez

potassium (K), 18 calcium (Ca), 9.4 magnesium (Mg), 0.10 boron (B), 0.05 copper (Cu), 0.50 iron (Fe), 0.25 manganese (Mn), 0.05 molybdenum (Mo), and 0.25 zinc (Zn). Sole-source lighting treatments. A multilayer (three layers) production system was used in

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Haijie Dou, Genhua Niu, Mengmeng Gu, and Joseph G. Masabni

( Liaros et al., 2016 ; Saha et al., 2016 ). Indoor vertical farming, also known as “plant factory,” is a highly controlled environmental system for plant production that uses multiple-layer culture shelves with artificial lighting ( Despommier, 2010

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Jianping P. Wang, Suleiman S. Bughrara, and C. Jerry Nelson

loss. Large root systems that increase water uptake efficiency ( McCully, 1999 ; Weerathaworn et al., 1992 ) and adapted leaf characteristics, such as lower specific leaf area and lower stomatal density that reduce water loss, are examples