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Charles L. Webber III, Merritt J. Taylor, and James W. Shrefler

herbicide applications (herbicides postdirected sprayed at the base of the crop rather than over the top). Scythe ® (Dow AgroSciences, Indianapolis, IN) is a fatty acid–based, nonselective, synthetic contact herbicide consisting of 57% PA and other related

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He Lisi, Su Jiale, Liu Xiaoqing, Li Chang, and Chen Shangping

irreversible hydrolysis of sucrose into glucose and fructose, are a group of ubiquitous enzymes that can be divided into acid, neutral, or alkaline groups according to their solubility, pH optima, and subcellular localizations. Acid invertase exists in the

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Tong Zhang, Zheng Zhang, Qi Qiao, Wei Liu, and Xiaogai Hou

α-Linolenic acid (ALA) is rich in seed oil of tree peony. As an innovative and emerging woody oilseed crop resource, tree peony is now being more effectively developed and used in China. Paeonia ostii belongs to the perennial deciduous shrub of

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Ben A. Bergmann, John M. Dole, and Ingram McCall

flower-initiation procedures. Growers may be able to alleviate some of these issues by applying gibberellic acid to their crops. Gibberellic acid can be used to break dormancy, promote stem elongation, and replace photoperiodic requirements ( Kende and

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Simona Pinnavaia, Emilio Senesi, Anne Plotto, Jan A. Narciso, and Elizabeth A. Baldwin

surfaces can often extend storage by creating a hostile environment for nonacid-tolerant organisms ( Hobbs, 1986 ). Pao and Petracek (1997) were able to extend shelf life of peeled and cut oranges with 0.5% and 1% citric acid when fruit were stored at 4

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Jun Yuan, Liyuan Huang, Naifu Zhou, Hui Wang, and Genhua Niu

Acidic soils account for 30% of the world’s total land and as high as 50% of the arable land ( Kochian et al., 2004 ). In these low pH soils, P is easily fixed by clay minerals and becomes unavailable for root uptake. On the other hand, Al is

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Reza Saeedi, Nematollah Etemadi, Ali Nikbakht, Amir H. Khoshgoftarmanesh, and Mohammad R. Sabzalian

inorganic sources of calcium, e.g., Ca(NO 3 ) 2 .4H 2 O, are applied during winter or early spring production to prevent calcium deficiency ( Dole and Wilkins, 2004 ). Recently, Ca-amino acid chelates have been synthesized and distributed to supply different

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Tomohiro Okada and Yoh-ichi Matsubara

the changes in amino acid constituents related to disease tolerance in mycorrhizal plants, Baltruschat and Schonbeck (1975) demonstrated that the propagation of Thielaviopsis basicola was inhibited by the increase of arginine and citrulline in

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Fernando de la Riva, Pilar Carolina Mazuela, Juan Eugenio Álvaro, and Miguel Urrestarazu

, chlorination also has a limited effect on reducing micro-organisms on the surface of fruits and vegetables ( Sapers, 2001 ). Greenspan and Margulies patented peracetic acid in 1950 for treating fruits and vegetables to reduce spoilage from bacteria and fungi

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Yong Yang, Xueyong Liu, Yuanli Jiang, Zuoxiang Xiang, Qingguo Xu, Na Zhao, and Bichao Shu

adjustments to adapt/tolerate salinity stress, which include the changes of free amino acids and carbohydrates metabolism. Free amino acids are fundamental compositions in the processes of protein and other growth substances synthesis, which are vital for