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Roseann Leiner, Abraham Smyth, Rudy Candler, and Patricia S. Holloway*

Berries and vegetables can be sources of beneficial phytochemicals that may have antioxidant activity in the human diet. Information on type and quantity of phytochemicals may open new crop opportunities for berries and vegetables harvested in Alaska. A method was developed for detecting ascorbic acid and eight phenolic acids on an HPLC instrument using a reverse phase Merck Chromolith C18 column. The method used UV absorbance detection at 280nm to separate a standard solution of the following nine phytochemicals: ascorbic acid, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. The mobile phase was a mixture (3.5% to 14% gradient) of organic solvent (5 parts acetonitrile: 2 parts methanol) and aqueous solvent (2 mmol aqueous trifluoroacetic acid - TFA) at a flow rate of 2 mL/min. In 2003, over 60 samples of berries and 60 samples of baby greens were extracted and analyzed. Plant samples were extracted by blending 10-20g of frozen plant tissue with 5 parts TFA. The extracts were centrifuged, diluted 4:1 and filtered (0.2 μm). Chromatograms from HPLC analysis for all samples were complex in peak size and number. Chromatograms for six extracts of high bush cranberries, Viburnum edule, exhibited intense peaks that indicate the presence of caffeic acid, based on retention times. Chromatograms for seven extracts of rose hips, Rosa acicularis, exhibited peaks that indicate the presence of ascorbic acid, based on retention times. Gallic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid are apparent minor components in the leaves of some baby greens. This research will continue in 2004 with more plant samples and further method development for detection of other phytochemicals.

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Stefan B. Lura and Alan T. Whittemore

the former ICRA for Viburnum and Unassigned Woody Genera were discovered. Those registrations have been completed here through formal publication. Most of these names do not yet have standard specimens. We are working to obtain good herbarium

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Aaron L. Warsaw, R. Thomas Fernandez, Bert M. Cregg, and Jeffrey A. Andresen

Irrigation scheduling based on plant daily water use (DWU) to conserve water without adversely affecting plant growth compared with a traditional irrigation rate was investigated for 25 common container-grown woody ornamentals. Ten different taxa were grown in 2006 and 2007 and five in 2008 in 10.2-L (No. 3) containers. Overhead irrigation was applied in four treatments: 1) a control irrigation rate of 19 mm (1.07 L per container) per application (control); 2) irrigation scheduled to replace 100% DWU per application (100DWU); 3) irrigation alternating every other application with 100% replacement of DWU and 75% DWU (100-75); and 4) irrigation scheduled on a three application cycle replacing 100% DWU followed by two applications of 75% DWU (100-75-75). Irrigation applications were separated by at least 24 h. Daily water use was calculated by measuring the difference in volumetric moisture content 1 h and approximately 24 h after irrigation. The three DWU treatments reduced total irrigation applied 6% to 75% compared with the control depending on treatment and species, except for Buddleja davidii ‘Guinevere’ in which total irrigation applied by the 100DWU, 100-75, and 100-75-75 treatments was 26%, 10%, and 5%, respectively, greater than the amount applied to the control. Final growth index [(plant height + width A + width B)/3] of all DWU treatments was greater than or equal to the control for all taxa. Forsythia ×intermedia ‘New Hampshire Gold’, Hydrangea arborescens ‘Dardom’, Hydrangea paniculata ‘Unique’, and Weigela florida ‘Wilma’ had higher water use efficiencies (estimated as the change in growth index per liter of water applied) at lower irrigation treatment volumes with no differences in growth index or growth index increase, indicating that further irrigation reductions may be possible without affecting growth. PourThru electrical conductivity of H. arborescens ‘Dardom’, Spiraea fritschiana ‘Wilma’, and Viburnum ×burkwoodii ‘Chenaultii’ measured in 2007 did not accumulate to damaging levels. Final plant size of all taxa under DWU treatments was the same or greater than the control and substantially less water was applied under DWU treatments except for B. davidii ‘Guinevere’.

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Emily G. Tenczar and Vera A. Krischik

nitrogen compared with trees that were not defoliated ( Bryant et al., 1993 ). In a study on Viburnum sp. (a rosaceous relative of ninebark), the specialist viburnum leaf beetle [ Pyrrhalta viburni (Paykull)] avoided blackhaw viburnum ( Viburnum

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Dilma Silva, Donald Cox, and Richard C. Beeson Jr

balls of container-grown plants of Viburnum odoratissimum Ker Gawl. (viburnum), L. japonicum (ligustrum), Illicium parviflorum Michx. (anise), and Magnolia grandiflora L. ‘Little Gem’ (magnolia; Table 1 ) were sampled for root isolation

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Jeff B. Million and Thomas H. Yeager

was inversely proportional to plant leaf area and decreased at close container spacings. Beeson and Yeager (2003) measured irrigation capture by marketable-sized Viburnum odoratissimum , Ligustrum japonicum , and Rhododendron spp. in 23-cm

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A.L. Shober, K.A. Moore, C. Wiese, S.M. Scheiber, E.F. Gilman, and M. Paz

al., 2009 ), and sweet viburnum ( Viburnum odoratissimum ) ( Shober et al., 2009 ) could be established in the Florida landscape under natural rainfall in U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) hardiness zones 8b and 9a when irrigated with 3 L every 8

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Charles R. Hall and Dewayne L. Ingram

, Viburnum × juddi , grown in the lower Midwest. While exploring the same plant category, field-grown landscape shrubs, this research focuses on production and post-production practices associated with Taxus × media ‘Densiformis’, which is often grown

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Gerry Moore

betulifolia and S. japonica var. fortunei that grow nearby. A specimen of this cultivar has been deposited at Brooklyn Botanic Garden Herbarium (BKL). Viburnum nudum ‘Longwood’. Registered 11 February 2008. Registrant: Tomasz Aniśko, Longwood

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Emily C. Baisden, Douglas W. Tallamy, Desiree L. Narango, and Eileen Boyle

both years. There was no difference in the mean percent eaten for arrowwood viburnum ( Viburnum dentatum ) in either year (2015: difference = –0.01, P = 0.99; 2016: difference = –0.06, P = 0.53). Fig. 3. Comparisons in 2015 and 2016 of hatchling