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James D. McCreight and William M. Wintermantel

yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV; family Closteroviridae , genus Crinivirus ) was first recognized on melon in the 1980s in the United Arab Emirates ( Hassan and Duffus, 1990 ) and is a threat to melon production worldwide. It has been reported in

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Mohsen Mohseni-Moghadam, Christopher S. Cramer, Robert L. Steiner, and Rebecca Creamer

in Colorado during 2003 is estimated to have cost growers $2.5 to $5.0 million in farm receipts alone (Schwartz and Gent, unpublished data). If the rate of spread and damage from IYSV and onion thrips ( Thrips tabaci L.), the vector of the virus

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Xiaohong Wang, Bishun Ye, Xiangpeng Kang, Ting Zhou, and Tongfei Lai

viral genome explicitly ( Senthil-Kumar and Mysore, 2011 ). PVX, a single-strand RNA virus, is a member of the potexvirus group ( Lico et al., 2006 ). The PVX-mediated VIGS has been used successfully for gene function analysis in tomato fruit ( Chen et

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Susan C. Miyasaka, Sharon Motomura-Wages, Ishakh Pulakkatu-Thodi, Michael J. Melzer, Christopher A. Clark, Don R. LaBonte, and Arthur Q. Villordon

.F. Perez, A. Untiveros, M. Quispe, D. Fuentes, S. Barker, I. Simon, R. 2009 Complete viral genome sequence and discovery of novel viruses by deep sequencing of small RNAs: A generic method for diagnosis, discovery and sequencing of viruses Virology 388 1 7

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Karen R. Harris, Kai-Shu Ling, W. Patrick Wechter, and Amnon Levi

confers resistance to an uncapped and non-polyadenylated RNA virus in melon Plant J. 48 452 462 Prins, M. Laimer, M. Noris, E. Schubert, J. Wasseneggar, M. Tepfer, M. 2008 Strategies

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Madhurababu Kunta, J.V. da Graça, and Mani Skaria

Viroids are small infectious agents of single-stranded, unencapsidated, nontranslated, circular RNA with self-complementary sequences ( Flores et al., 1998 ). Citrus viroids have been classified into distinct groups based on their biological and

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Katherine M. Solo, Sara B. Collins, Madalyn K. Shires, Ron Ochoa, Gary R. Bauchan, Liesel G. Schneider, Alan Henn, James C. Jacobi, Jean L. Williams-Woodward, M.R. Hajimorad, Frank A. Hale, John B. Wilkerson, Alan S. Windham, Kevin L. Ong, Mathews L. Paret, Xavier Martini, David H. Byrne, and Mark T. Windham

Rose rosette disease (RRD) has become established across much of the United States. The causal agent is Rose rosette virus (RRV) (genus Emaravirus) ( Di Bello et al., 2015 ; Laney et al., 2011 ), with the main mode of natural transmission being

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Samuel F. Hutton and John W. Scott

lines HortScience 43 2228 2230 Verlaan, M.G. Hutton, S.F. Ibrahem, R.M. Kormelink, R. Visser, R.G.F. Scott, J.W. Edwards, J.D. Bai, Y. 2013 The tomato yellow leaf curl virus resistance genes Ty-1 and Ty-3 are allelic and code for DFDGD-class RNA

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Samuel F. Hutton, Yuanfu Ji, and John W. Scott

yellow leaf curl virus resistance genes Ty-1 and Ty-3 are allelic and code for DFDGD-class RNA-dependent RNA polymerases PLoS Genet. 9 3 e1003399

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Kai Zhao, Feng Zhang, Yi Yang, Yue Ma, Yuexue Liu, He Li, Hongyan Dai, and Zhihong Zhang

grafted on a transgenic rootstock in annual crops ( Haroldsen et al., 2012b ). The spread of RNA gene-silencing signals through graft junctions has been evaluated in fruit trees. For example, in a preliminary experiment, virus resistance was seen in sour