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Christopher S. Brown, Andrew C. Schuerger, and John C. Sager

, and Peter Hadeland for the LED arrays used in this study. We also thank Raymond M. Wheeler for his help and advice, Baishnab C. Tripathy for his critical reading of the manuscript and Neil C. Yorio for assistance with the spectral scans. Mention of a

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Andrea Stuemky and Mark E. Uchanski

the cooler winter months. Traditionally, high-intensity discharge forms of SL (e.g., high-pressure sodium) have been used in greenhouses to allow for winter production, but LEDs have quickly become an alternative that growers are adopting ( Park et al

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Hiroshi Hamamoto and Keisuke Yamazaki

different light colors. We used light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as monochrome supplemental light sources. LEDs have narrow spectral bandwidth emissions, low energy consumption, and a long life. They are therefore useful for studies of the effects of light

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Dean A. Kopsell and Carl E. Sams

concentrations ( Charron and Sams, 2004 ; Lefsrud et al., 2006 ). Near monochromatic LEDs are one of the most energy-efficient and rapidly developing lighting technologies. One developing application of LED technology is for horticultural plant production in

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Celina Gómez, Robert C. Morrow, C. Michael Bourget, Gioia D. Massa, and Cary A. Mitchell

used in horticulture ( Morrow, 2008 ). As described by Bourget (2008) , LEDs are robust, solid-state semiconductor devices that can emit narrow-spectrum light to maximize photosynthetic quantum efficiency for specific crop species. In 2008, LEDs were

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Joshua K. Craver, Jennifer K. Boldt, and Roberto G. Lopez

‘Ostinata’). Likewise, Graper and Healy (1992) found that an increased DLI led to increased growth rate and partitioning of carbohydrates into sugars for petunia ‘Red Flash’ seedlings. HPS lamps are the current industry standard for SL in greenhouses

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Dave Llewellyn, Katherine Schiestel, and Youbin Zheng

-round commodities, such as cut gerbera, to use SL to meet their crops’ economic minimum lighting requirements. Until recently, the only viable options for SL were high-intensity discharge (HID) systems such as HPS lamps. LED technology has improved significantly in

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Masahumi Johkan, Kazuhiro Shoji, Fumiyuki Goto, Shin-nosuke Hashida, and Toshihiro Yoshihara

phenolic compounds. LED lights create specific wavelengths and a narrow bandwidth for plant growth compared with filters with broad-spectrum light sources. Therefore, blue LED lights can produce the specific blue spectrum more efficiently than blue filters

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Gary W. Stutte, Sharon Edney, and Tony Skerritt

, ultraviolet radiation, mineral imbalances, water stress, mechanical injury, and pathogen attack ( Gould, 2004 ). A promising electric light source for controlled-environment plant growth is light-emitting diodes (LEDs), which are solid-state, durable

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Kevin R. Cope and Bruce Bugbee

The application of LEDs for plant growth lighting has been studied for over two decades ( Barta et al., 1992 ; Bula et al., 1991 ). Initial studies included only red LEDs because they were the most efficient and emit light that coincides with the