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J. Jiao, X. Wang, and M.J. Tsujita

Uniconazole was applied as a drench or spray to six hybrid lily (Liliurn sp.) cultivars. Spray application was generally more effective than drench in reducing shoot elongation rate in the first few weeks, and then the efficacy decreased and was less effective than the drench at later stages of plant development. At flowering, a uniconazole drench at 0.1 mg/pot was ineffective for height reduction in `Bravo', `Juliana', and `Sunray' lilies. At higher rates, uniconazole drench was similar to spray in reducing shoot growth in `Bravo' and 306-1 but less effective than spray in `Juliana', `Star Gazer', and `Sunray' lilies. Uniconazole spray reduced plant height at flowering in all the lilies compared to control plants. Days to flower was not affected in `Bravo', `Juliana', and `Sunray' but was increased in `Star Gazer', 306-1, and 306-2 by uniconazole spray treatments. Flowering duration was decreased only in 306-1 by uniconazole spray at 0.2 mg/pot. Chemical name used: (E)-1-(4-chlorophenyl) -4,4 -dimethyl-2-(l,2,4 -triazol-1-yl)-1-penten-3 -ol (uniconazole).

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Richard J. McAvoy

Lilium longiflorum Thunb. cv. Ace grown without plant growth regulators and plants drenched with 0.5 mg a.i. ancymidol per pot following shoot emergence were compared to plants growing in a medium containing uniconazole-impregnated amendments. Uniconazole was applied at rates of 0.18, 0.018, and 0.0018 mg a.i. per pot using either impregnated rockwool (RW) or copolymer acrylamide acrylate (CA). Two other treatment groups received a uniconazole drench at potting (0.018 or 0.0018 mg a.i. per pot). Impregnated CA resulted in undesirably short lilies (i.e., plants <1.5 times the height of the pot) when 0.18 mg uniconazole per pot was incorporated into the medium; effective height control was obtained with CA at 0.018 mg/pot; no height control was observed at 0.0018 mg/pot. Similarly, final height of lilies grown in medium containing uniconazole-impregnated RW decreased as the rate of uniconazole increased. Pre-emergence potting medium drenches with uniconazole (0.018 and 0.0018 mg a.i. per pot) did not significantly affect lily growth and flowering. Ancymidol drench was less effective at retarding stem length and plant height than medium incorporation of 0.18 mg uniconazole. Flowering was not significantly affected by any treatment. Chemical names used: a-cyclopropyl-a-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-5-pyriimidine methanol(ancymidol);B-[(4-cyclophenyl)methyl]-a-(1,1-dimethylethyl)1 H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol(paclobutrazol);(E)-(p-chloro-phenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-1-penten-3-ol(uniconazole).

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L. Eric Hinesley, Stuart L. Warren, and Layne K. Snelling

In two experiments, uniconazole (0.25 to 16 mg·L-1 a.i.) was applied as a root drench to containerized Fraser fir [Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.] at various times of the year. Leader length, stem diameter, length of laterals, and number of subterminal buds were reduced the following growing season. Treatment during the 1994 growing season reduced lateral bud formation on the leader in 1995, whereas treatment with 8 or 16 mg·L-1 in Mar. 1995 (prior to budbreak) increased it. Uniconazole caused needle discoloration and abscission at concentrations ≥4 mg·L-1. Leader growth was reduced more than branch elongation, which tended to make plants more decurrent. The utility of uniconazole in production of tabletop Fraser fir Christmas trees was unclear; reduced shoot elongation was often accompanied by fewer lateral buds and needle discoloration and/or abscission. Chemical name used: E-1-(p-Chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazole-1-penten-3-ol) (uniconazole).

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Yin-Tung Wang and Thomas M. Blessington

Uniconazole and paclobutrazol were tested for their effects on greenhouse production of four foliage species. Soil drenches of uniconazole retarded shoot and petiole elongation of Brassaia actinophylla Endl. Paclobutrazol reduced shoot elongation, but required higher doses than uniconazole and did not reduce petiole growth. Foliar sprays with either retardant at 12.5 mg·liter-1 resulted in short stems on lateral shoots of Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Blume `Karen' after pinching, but soil drenches at low rates were less effective. Soil drenches of uniconazole or paclobutrazol were equally effective in reducing stem growth of Syngonium podophyllum Schott `White Butterfly' and increasing leaf width, but had no effect on the rate of leaf production or blade length. Both retardants induced short petioles in this species. Severe growth reduction occured on Plectranthus australis R. Br. even at the lowest rates of uniconazole and paclobutrazol (0.025 and 0.20 mg/pot, respectively) as soil drenches. Production of lateral shoots was inhibited for P. australis by both retardants. Chemical names used: (E)-1-(p-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethy1-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-1-penten-3-ol (uniconazole); (2RS,3RS)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-(H-1,2,4-triazol-l-Yl-)Dentan-3-ol (paclobutrazol).

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Tim D. Davis, James E. Ells, and Ronald H. Walser

Seeds of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. UC 82L were treated with hypertonic priming solutions containing KNO3 and K3PO4(10 g·liter-1 each), and various concentrations of uniconazole before sowing. Treatment of the seed with priming solution only hastened emergence by ≈ 2 days compared to untreated seed sown directly from the packet, but did not affect total emergence after 12 days. Addition of uniconazole to the priming solution had no significant effect on speed of emergence or total emergence after 12 days compared to the primed control. Seed priming plus uniconazole at 1 or 10 mg·liter-1 reduced seedling height after 2 weeks by ≈ 20% compared to the primed control. Uniconazole had no effect on the mortality of either hardened or nonhardened seedlings exposed to below-freezing temperatures for 3 hr. These data suggest that treatment of tomato seed with hypertonic solutions containing uniconazole would be of little practical value in protecting seedlings from freeze damage. Chemical names used: (E)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-yl)penten-3-ol (uniconazole).

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James Sellmer, Craig R. Adkins, Ingram McCall, and Brian Whipker

Plant growth retardant (PGR) substrate drenches (in milligrams active ingredient) of ancymidol at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, or 4; paclobutrazol at 1, 2, 4, 8, or 16; and uniconazole at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 were applied to pampas grass (Cortaderia argentea Nees) to compare their effectiveness at chemical height control during greenhouse forcing and evaluate the residual effect on plant growth in the landscape. Cortaderia argentea plant height exhibited a quadratic dose response to paclobutrazol and uniconazole, while ancymidol-treated plants showed a linear dose effect. During greenhouse production, all rates of uniconazole reduced plant height by 56% to 71% compared to the untreated control, whereas paclobutrazol and ancymidol treatments reduced plant height by 14% to 61% and 0% to 34%, respectively. Severe height retardation was evident at 2 mg of uniconazole. By week 5 in the field all plants treated with uniconazole, paclobutrazol doses of 4, 8, or 16 mg, and with 4 mg of ancymidol were shorter than the untreated control. By week 24 in the field, all plants exhibited similar heights except plants treated with uniconazole at 1, 2, or 4 mg remained shorter than the untreated control. In conclusion, each PGR was effective in controlling plant height of Cortaderia argentea during greenhouse forcing. Furthermore, plants treated with low to moderate rates of ancymidol or paclobutrazol grew out of the regulating effect by week 5 in the landscape. These results demonstrate that PGR can be effectively and economically employed in the production of Cortaderia argentea.

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Holly L. Scoggins* and Joyce G. Latimer

Increasing fertilizer levels may reduce production time but can lead to excessive growth of herbaceous perennials, requiring the application of plant growth regulators (PGRs). This study investigated the effects of ascending fertilizer rates in conjunction with two rates of uniconazole and a control. Rooted liners of Artemisia arborescens L. `Powis Castle', Artemisia vulgaris L. `Oriental Limelight, Astilbe chinensis (Maxim.) Franch. `Pumila', Filipendula rubra (Hill) Robinson `Venusta' and Perovskia atriplicifolia Benth. were potted with controlled-release fertilizer (15N-3.9P-10K) incorporated at 2.4, 4.72, and 7.11 kg·m-3. A single foliar spray application of uniconazole was applied two weeks after transplanting at a volume of 210 mL·m-3 and two rates from 15 to 60 mg·L-1 plus a control (species-dependent). Plant height and width were measured at 2,4,6, and 8 weeks after treatment (WAT). No interactions between fertilizer rate and uniconazole were observed. Main effects varied by species. The application of uniconazole controlled height and width of Artemisia `Oriental Limelight' and Astilbe for the duration of the experiment. Height, width, and dry weight of Artemisia `Oriental Limelight' increased with ascending fertilizer rates while Astilbe was not affected. Growth of Filipendula and Artemisia `Powis Castle' was unresponsive to uniconazole, though dry weight was reduced for both at the lowest fertilizer rate. Uniconazole provided height control of Perovskia, but the effect did not persist beyond 6 WAT. Ascending fertilizer rates increased Perovskia dry weight but not height.

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James L. Gibson and Brian E. Whipker

Ornamental cabbage and kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) plants of cultivars Osaka White and Nagoya Red were treated with paclobutrazol and uniconazole as foliar sprays or substrate drenches. These treatments were compared to the industry standard of daminozide foliar sprays. Applying drenches of paclobutrazol (a.i.) at 4 mg/pot or uniconazole (a.i.) at 1 mg/pot (28,350 mg = 1.0 oz) resulted in 6% or 17%, respectively, shorter `Osaka White' plants while a 2 mg/pot paclobutrazol drench or a uniconazole drench at 0.25 mg/pot resulted in 25% shorter `Nagoya Red' plants. Although effective, the expense of substrate drenches for both plant growth regulators (PGRs) would not be economically feasible for growers to use. Paclobutrazol foliar sprays at concentrations of up to 80 mg·L-1 (ppm) were ineffective in controlling plant height and diameter of either `Osaka White' or `Nagoya Red'. A uniconazole foliar spray of 16 mg·L-1 resulted in 17% shorter `Nagoya Red' plants and 6% shorter `Osaka White' plants. A daminozide foliar spray of 2500 mg·L-1, sprayed twice, resulted in 21% shorter plants for both cultivars. Spraying daminozide would provide optimal height control for the retail grower. Although spraying daminozide twice controlled plant height and costs half the amount of an uniconazole spray at 16 mg·L-1, plant diameter was not affected with daminozide, therefore a wholesale grower who would desire a smaller diameter plant should use a uniconazole spray of 16 mg·L-1.

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Anil P. Ranwala, Garry Legnani, Mary Reitmeier, Barbara B. Stewart, and William B. Miller

We evaluated preplant bulb dips in three commercial plant growth retardants [ancymidol (A-Rest), paclobutrazol (Bonzi), and uniconazole (Sumagic)] for height control in seven oriental hybrid lily (Lilium) cultivars (Aubade, Berlin, Casa Blanca, Muscadet, Sissi, Star Gazer, and Tom Pouce), and seven LA-hybrid lily [hybrids resulting from crosses between easter lily (Lilium longiflorum) and Asiatic hybrids] cultivars (Aladdin's Dazzle, Best Seller, Cebeco Dazzle, Royal Dream, Royal Parade, Royal Perfume, and Salmon Classic) grown in containers. A 1-min dip into a range of concentrations of each product was used to determine the optimum concentrations for height control. The results indicate that bulb dips, especially with uniconazole and paclobutrazol, can be a highly effective means of height control in hybrid lilies. Cultivars varied in their response to growth retardant treatments. In general, LA-hybrid lilies were much more responsive to the growth retardant treatments than oriental hybrids and required lower rates for comparable height control. Delays in flowering, increased bud abortion and leaf yellowing were observed only with high concentrations of uniconazole or paclobutrazol where the height reduction was also too excessive for a commercially acceptable crop.

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Yin-Tung Wang

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis `Jane Cowl' were pruned several weeks after receiving 0.1 mg/pot uniconazole soil drenches to retard the growth. Plants then received foliar sprays of GA3 (50 ppm), KIBA (200 ppm), or PBA (200 ppm) immediately after pruning or when the lateral shoots had three leaves. Application of the above growth regulators immediately after pruning had no effect on plant growth. When treatments were delayed until the three-leaf stage, GA3 completely restored leaf production rate and partially restored shoot elongation and pedicel length. GA3 also increased leaf area, and the leaf specific weight was similar to leaves on plants not receiving uniconazole. GA3 increased flower production 175% and 65% more than plants treated with uniconazole and the untreated plants, respectively. KIBA and PBA had no effect on altering the growth of uniconazole-treated plants. Foliar application of a combination of GA3, KIBA and PBA at the three-leaf stage had an effect similar to that of GA3 alone. However, the effect of GA3 on growth appeared to be transient and repeated application may be required to maintain the restored growth of uniconazole-treated plants.