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Qi Zhang, Kevin Rue, and Jeanna Mueller

Plant growth and development is affected by various environmental stresses such as drought, salinity, and suboptimal temperatures. During the seed germination and seedling growth stages, plants are the most vulnerable to stresses ( Almansouri et al

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J. Ryan Stewart and Irene McGary

, ecosystems in which several congeners of new jersey tea are native, are dependent on fire for renewal and regeneration ( Keeley, 1991 ; McMillan Browse, 1994 ), which is reflected in the observation that seed germination of several ceanothus ( Ceanothus spp

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Jenjira Chumpookam, Huey-Ling Lin, and Ching-Chang Shiesh

). The compound has recently been referred to as "karrikinolide" ( Commander et al., 2008 ). The action of smoke in promoting seed germination in many species is attributed to the presence of this compound ( Soos et al., 2009 ). Dixon and Roche (1995

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Kun Jia, Michelle DaCosta, and J. Scott Ebdon

adequate density and uniformity for play ( Green et al., 2018 ). Adverse conditions such as cold soil temperatures (≈10 °C) typical of early spring plantings in temperate areas of the northeastern United States can delay seed germination and diminish

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Mohamad-Hossein Sheikh-Mohamadi, Nematollah Etemadi, Ali Nikbakht, Mostafa Farajpour, Mostafa Arab, and Mohammad Mahdi Majidi

becoming a main environmental factor limiting seed germination and seedling growth in arid and semiarid regions ( Sekmen et al., 2012 ). Different levels of salinity stress can affect turfgrass adversely. These may include a series of morphological

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Tyler Hoskins and Ryan N. Contreras

durations to evaluate the effects on seed germination, 2) to evaluate growth effects from various treatments, and 3) to determine whether the relative frequency of polyembryony is affected by EMS treatment. Materials and Methods Plant material and experiment

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K. E. Cushman, H. B. Pemberton, B. G. Cobb, and W. E. Roberson

Viola tricolor seed were exposed to aerated solutions of water or 300 or 400 mM NaCl for 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8 days. After priming treatments, seed were air dried, placed on moist filter paper in petri dishes, and set in dark growth chambers at 18 or 30°C for germination. priming for 6 days in water increased germination of `Crystal Bowl Yellow' seed from 80 to 88% when germinated at 30 °. Untreated seed germination was 92% at 18°. Priming for 6 days in 300 mM NaCl improved germination of `Majestic Giant Blue' seed from 57 to 76% when germinated at 30°. Untreated seed germination was 80% at 18°. These data indicate that seed priming could be used to improve summer germination of a cool season annual. Priming increased germination at the higher than optimum temperature (30°) to levels similar to that for the optimum temperature (18°). However, the best priming solution depended on the cultivar.

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J. McConnell

A local ground orchid, Spathoglottis plicata Blume, and coconut, Cocos nucifera L., were used in the classroom to teach seed germination. S. plicata, a common orchid on Guam, was utilized to demonstrate the aseptic culture of seeds under non-sterile conditions. The procedures were done in the classroom without a laminar air-flow cabinet. Nonsterile seeds were sown on growing media which were prepared without autoclaving, but by incorporating sodium hypochlorite into the media. Students had a high rate of success in germinating the orchid seeds without contamination by spraying sodium hypochlorite on the seeds. Different stages of coconut seed development were presented to students by simply cutting coconut in half. Unique features and botanical terms of coconut seed development can be taught throughout the year. Teaching materials on seed germination of the two tropical plants are being developed by print-on-demand methods.

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William J. Carpenter and Eric R. Ostmark


Amaryllis, (Hippeastrum × hybridum Hort.) seed germination was light-independent, but temperature influenced the germination rate. Constant 25°C promoted higher total germination (86%), fewer days (8.3) to germinate, and a shorter span of days (4.3) than other constant temperatures or alternating temperatures of 25°–30°, 20°–30°, 15°–25°, 25°–35°, or 15°–35°. Exposures to 10° or 40° for 1 to 3 days during various seed germination phases reduced germination by 14% to 23% and delayed radicle emergence, but 40° for 1 to 3 days caused larger reductions in germination than comparable durations at 10°. Exposure of seeds to 10° or 40° between days 2 and 4 caused the largest reductions in total germination.