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Roberto G. Lopez and Erik S. Runkle

weight, shoot dry weight, shoot height, and root-to-shoot ratio measured after 8 d (shaded circles) and 16 d (open triangles) of propagation for petunia ‘Tiny Tunia Violet Ice’, ‘Double Wave Spreading Rose’, and ‘Supertunia Mini Purple’ cuttings. Each

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Limeng Xie, Patricia Klein, Kevin Crosby, and John Jifon

) were acquired directly by the software. Root-to-shoot ratio (RSR), specific root length (SRL), and root tissue density (RTD) were computed. Trait abbreviation and explanations are described in Table 1 . Table 1. Summary of measured shoot and root

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Ji Jhong Chen, Yuxiang Wang, Asmita Paudel, and Youping Sun

( Valdez-Aguilar et al., 2011 ). It was reported that plants can acclimate to salinity stress by increasing the root-to-shoot ratio to increase water uptake and limit water loss ( Acosta-Motos et al., 2017 ). In our study, the root-to-shoot ratio of three

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David R. Bryla, Bernadine C. Strik, M. Pilar Bañados, and Timothy L. Righetti

to roots and less biomass to shoots than fertilized plants, but only during the first growing season. By the end of the first year, the root-to-shoot ratio in unfertilized plants averaged 0.85 g of root DW per gram of shoot DW (including all

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Qin Shi, Yunlong Yin, Zhiquan Wang, Wencai Fan, and Jianfeng Hua

differences were found in leaf and total FW ( P < 0.05) as well as root to shoot ratio ( P < 0.01) in C and DS-R treatments. Although root, stem, leaf, and total dry weight of T .118 plants submitted to C and DS-R treatments showed no significant difference

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Annika E. Kohler and Roberto G. Lopez

the RDM and SDM, respectively. Measurements of stem length, stem caliper, RDM, and SDM were used to determine the root-to-shoot ratio (R:S; R:S = RDM/SDM), total dry mass (TDM = RDM + SDM), sturdiness quotient (SQ; SQ = stem length/stem caliper), and

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Shinsuke Agehara and Daniel I. Leskovar

full recovery of root elongation when ABA in the elongation zone was restored to normal levels with exogenous ABA ( Sharp, 1994 ). The overall effect of ABA can be summarized as an increase in root-to-shoot ratio, which, along with the regulation of

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root to shoot imbalance. Consequently, water and nutrient uptake decreases and the tree declines. Pruning is a horticultural technique commonly used to adjust root to shoot ratio. Vashisth and Livingston (p. 933) evaluated the use of pruning and types

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Xiaojie Zhao, Guihong Bi, Richard L. Harkess, and Eugene K. Blythe

significant effects on plant growth, for instance, the dry weight of shoot and root, and root-to-shoot ratio in texas mountain laurel ( Sophora secundiflora ) were unaffected by NH 4 :NO 3 ratio ( Niu et al., 2011 ). Chlorophyll content can be affected by NH

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Christine L. Wiese, Amy L. Shober, Edward F. Gilman, Maria Paz, Kimberly A. Moore, Sloane M. Scheiber, Meghan M. Brennan, and Sudeep Vyapari

spread-to-shoot ratio stabilizes ( Gilman and Kane, 1991 ). However, previous research on multiple cultivars of juniper suggests shrubs can survive and grow under normal rainfall conditions when they have reached a posttransplant root-to-shoot ratio