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David H. Suchoff, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, Heike W. Sederoff, Jonathan R. Schultheis, Matthew D. Kleinhenz, Frank J. Louws, and Christopher C. Gunter

is further exacerbated by a reduction in the amount of assimilable CO 2 caused by cold-induced stomatal closure ( Allen and Ort, 2001 ). In response to cold soils, root system growth and carbon sink strength are reduced, resulting in a slowing of

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Dennis N. Katuuramu, W. Patrick Wechter, Marcellus L. Washington, Matthew Horry, Matthew A. Cutulle, Robert L. Jarret, and Amnon Levi

et al., 2017 ). Fluctuating amounts of rainfall and rising temperatures across crop production zones highlight the urgency to develop plant materials that are resilient to these erratic weather patterns ( Trenberth et al., 2014 ). The root system is

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Zhipei Feng, Xitian Yang, Hongyan Liang, Yuhua Kong, Dafeng Hui, Jiabao Zhao, Erhui Guo, and Beibei Fan

., 2016 ). Related experiments with Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Engelm. and Pinus radiata D. Don seedlings have discovered that AP can modify root system architecture and ultimately enhance seedlings growth and survival in the field

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Renae E. Moran, Youping Sun, Fang Geng, Donglin Zhang, and Gennaro Fazio

plant cells. In the northern regions of the United States and Canada, cold temperature injury to the root systems of fruit trees can cause significant tree losses and yield reductions and occurs periodically when snow cover is thin or nonexistent

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Kelly T. Morgan, T.A. Obreza, and J.M.S. Scholberg

Root system structure determines the volume of soil accessible to crop plants as well as the pathway for water and solute uptake ( Kramer and Boyer, 1995 ). Increasing the length of small-diameter fibrous roots within a crop root system increases

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Olivia Sanchez, Stephanie E. Burnett, and Bryan J. Peterson

measurements of P n . Cutting harvest. We harvested cuttings on 18 Sept. 2018 and assessed the percentage of cuttings that rooted. Subjective ratings were assigned for root system quality on a scale from 0 to 5, with 0 for no roots, 1 for one to several roots

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Lisa E. Richardson-Calfee, J. Roger Harris, Robert H. Jones, and Jody K. Fanelli

Root systems of most nursery-grown landscape trees extend well beyond the edge of the canopy. As a result, when large (greater than 2 m tall) field-grown trees are harvested for transplanting, only a small portion of the root system is moved and a

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Lesley A. Judd, Brian E. Jackson, William C. Fonteno, and Jean-Christophe Domec

increase in root growth of plants grown in wood substrates, measuring the hydraulic conductivity of root systems grown in substrates containing wood components may be insightful and help explain the growth increase/substrate effect. New instruments have

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Eugene K. Blythe and Jeff L. Sibley

resulted in a significant increase in the number of roots and total root length on rooted cuttings in comparison with nontreated cuttings. Larger root systems may allow earlier transplanting into larger nursery containers, with the size of the root system

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David R. Bryla

chemical and microbiological processes). Considerations include movement and availability of soil nutrients, size and distribution of the crop's root system, and the method of fertilizer application. Fertilizers placed correctly ensure that nutrients are