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Nobuko Sugimoto, A. Daniel Jones, and Randolph Beaudry

Esters are the primary aroma impact compounds produced in ripening apple fruit and normally account for 80% to 95% of the total volatiles emitted ( Paillard, 1990 ). Fresh apples autonomously produce an abundance of hexyl acetate, butyl acetate, and

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Sokrith Sea, Cyril Rakovski, and Anuradha Prakash

irradiation dose on fresh produce ( FDA, 2011 ); thus, 0.40 to 1.0 kGy is within the permissible dose range for fresh fruit. Previous studies indicate that irradiation affects the enzymes involved in ripening of pears ( Maxie et al., 1966 ; Wani et al., 2008

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Penelope Perkins-Veazie and Gail Nonnecke

Raspberry (Rubus idaeus L., `Heritage') fruit were harvested at six stages of color development to determine the relationship between quality attributes and physiological changes during ripening. Soluble solids concentration and fruit weight increased, whereas titratable acidity decreased during ripening. Fruit darkened and color saturation increased with maturity. Raspberry fruit exhibited a nonclimacteric pattern of respiration, and ethylene (C2H4) was detected only after red pigment developed. Respiration and C2H4 production of whole fruit were similar to those of drupes. Ethylene-forming enzyme activity commenced in drupes and receptacle tissue from fruit at the yellow and mottled stages, respectively. These data indicate that ripening in raspberry fruit is independent of C2H4 production and is nonclimacteric.

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Jingjing Kou, Zhihui Zhao, Wenjiang Wang, Chuangqi Wei, Junfeng Guan, and Christopher Ference

’ persimmon is a pollination-constant astringent (PCA) type and a late-ripening (late November) astringent persimmon; it is the most common persimmon cultivar in Hebei province. It is grown successfully in the humid continental climate and produces very large

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Mikal E. Saltveit Jr., Mark Ritenour, Mary E. Mangrich, and John C. Beaulieu

Exogenous application of ethanol (EtOH) vapor to whole tomato fruit or excised pericarp discs inhibits ripening without affecting subsequent quality. Inhibitory EtOH levels are induced in whole tomatoes by a 72 h exposure to anaerobic atmospheres at 20C. In contrast to tomatoes, exposure to EtOH vapor (0 to 6 ml EtOH/kg FW, for 3 to 6 h at 20C) did not retard ripening (e.g., changes in external color, flesh firmness, and soluble solids) of avocado, banana, cucumber, melon, peach, or plum fruit. When the blocked replicates for nectarines were sorted by the firmness of the control fruit, higher levels of EtOH vapor appeared to delay softening of the firmer fruit. From 0 to 4 ml EtOH/kg FW was injected as 95% EtOH into the seed cavity of melon fruit through a surface sterilized area near the equator of the fruit with a plastic syringe fitted with a 7.5 cm long hypodermic needle. Injection of 1 to 4 ml EtOH/kg FW inhibited the softening of `Honey Dew' and muskmelons. Slight tissue necrosis near the site of injection was noted in a few fruit. Unlike the ripening inhibition of tomatoes which is relatively insensitive to the stage of maturity, the inhibition of melon ripening by EtOH appeared to be significantly affected by the maturity of the fruit.

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Avinoam Nerd and Yosef Mizrahi

Changes occurring during fruit ripening and duration of fruit development were studied in Selenicereus megalanthus (Scum. ex Vaupel) Moran (yellow pitaya), a climbing cactus grown in protected structures at three sites in the Israeli Negev desert. During ripening, peel color turned from green to yellow, fruit dimensions slightly changed, and pulp content markedly increased. Total soluble solids and soluble sugars in the pulp increased, while starch content decreased. Acidity decreased at the last stage of ripening. Fruit in which most of the peel area had turned yellow (stage 4) were given the highest taste grade by a panel of tasters. Measurements of ethylene and CO2 evolution indicated that fruit was nonclimacteric. The mean number of days from anthesis to fruit of stage 4 was negatively correlated with the mean of the maximum and the minimum temperatures during the growth period. Daily accumulation of heat units (HUs) was calculated as the difference between daily mean temperature and a base temperature of 7 °C. Sum of HUs for the period from anthesis to ripening was 1558±12 HUs.

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Douglas D. Archbold, Rumphan Koslanund, and Kirk W. Pomper

To facilitate the growth of a commercial pawpaw (Asimina triloba) industry, several problems with harvest and postharvest handling of fruit need to be resolved. Pawpaw fruit ripening is characterized by an increase in soluble solids content, fl esh softening, increased volatile production, and a loss of green color intensity. Within 3 days after harvest, ethylene and respiratory climacteric peaks are clearly evident. Softening of fruit is due to the action of at least four enzymes, with the softening proceeding from the surface to the interior tissue. Fruit on a single tree can ripen over a 2-week period, creating labor problems. When immature fruit is harvested it does not ripen, even if treated with ethephon at 1000 mg·L-1 (ppm), but the use of commercially available growth regulators both pre- and postharvest warrants further study. Fruit soften very rapidly at room temperature after harvest and have a 2-to 4-day shelf life. However, we have stored pawpaw fruit for 1 month at 4 °C (39.2 °F) with little change in fruit firmness and fruit apparently continue normal ripening upon removal to ambient temperature. The optimum temperature and duration for holding fruit will need to be determined. Further extension in pawpaw storage life may be feasible with controlled or modified atmosphere storage. Although there are a number of practical problems with pawpaw harvest and postharvest storage that need to be addressed, we hope to develop recommendations for harvest and handling of fruit in the near future.

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Jingyi Lv, Yonghong Ge, Canying Li, Mengyuan Zhang, and Jianrong Li

Apple fruit is a climacteric fruit, which is characterized by an exponential increase in ethylene production and respiration rate, as well as changes in fruit color, texture, and aroma during ripening ( Yang and Hoffman, 1984 ). Ethylene has been

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Jennifer R. DeEll, Jennifer T. Ayres, and Dennis P. Murr

) and treatment delays after harvest (3, 7, and 10 d) on the ripening and incidence of storage disorders in ‘McIntosh’ apples from three harvest times. Apples were stored in air at 0 °C to 1 °C for 3 and 6 months, as well as in CA storage at 3 °C for 6

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Alessandra Ghiani, Noemi Negrini, Silvia Morgutti, Federica Baldin, Fabio F. Nocito, Anna Spinardi, Ilaria Mignani, Daniele Bassi, and Maurizio Cocucci

Two main phenotypes of peach fruit in terms of flesh texture and softening are melting flesh and non-melting flesh. The M texture softens in the last stage of ripening in correspondence to the peak of ethylene evolution ( Tonutti et al., 1996