Uniconazole was applied as a foliar spray at 0, 90, 130, 170, or 210 mg·liter-1 to rooted stem cuttings of `Spectabilis' forsythia (Forsythia ×intermedia Zab.) potted in calcined clay. Plants were harvested 0, 40, 80, 120, and 369 days after treatment (DAT). Treatment with uniconazole at 90 to 210 mg·liter suppressed leaf area and dry weight an average of 16% and 18%, respectively, compared to the nontreated controls when averaged over all harvest periods. Stem and root dry weight suppression was greatest at 80 DAT, 47% and 37%, respectively. Uniconazole suppressed root length from 15% to 36% and root area from 15% to 33% depending on harvest date. Internode length and stem diameter of uniconazole-treated plants were suppressed at all harvests except 369 DAT. Uniconazole resulted in increased and decreased root: shoot ratios 40 and 80 DAT, respectively; while root: shoot ratios were not affected for the remainder of the study. Relative growth rates of leaves, stems, and roots decreased with increasing uniconazole concentration; however, no relative growth rates were suppressed beyond 80 DAT. Generally, mineral nutrient concentrations increased as a result of uniconazole application. The proportion of mineral nutrients allocated to leaves and roots was not affected while the proportion of nutrients allocated to stems decreased with uniconazole application compared to the controls. Chemical name used: (E)-1-(p-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-1-penten-3-ol (uniconazole).
Mack Thetford, Stuart L. Warren, and Frank A. Blazich
B. Acock, M.C. Acock, and D. Pasternak
; PPFD, photosynthetic photon flux density; RGR, relative growth rate; RLW, residual leaf dry weight; SLA, leaf area/RLW ratio; TLW, total leaf dry weight. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal
Daniel I. Leskovar and Daniel J. Cantliffe
Abbreviations: DAP, days after planting; DAS, days after seeding; LDW, leaf dry weight; OI, overhead-irrigated; RDW, root dry weight; RGR, relative growth rate; SI, subsurface-irrigated; STDW, stem dry weight. 1 Current address: Texas Agricultural
Daniel I. Leskovar and Daniel J. Cantliffe
Abbreviations: AW, alternate watering; CW, continuous watering; DAS, days after seeding, MDG, mean days of germination; NAR, net assimilation rate; RCBD, randomized complete-block design; RGR, relative growth rate. 1 Current address: Texas Agr. Expt
Richard N. Arteca, Carl D. Schlagnhaufer, and Jeannette M. Arteca
Four concentrations of GA, (0.05, 0.5, 5.0, or 50 mg·liter–1) were applied to the root systems of seven hydroponically grown geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum cv. Empress Irene, Glacier Crimson, Sincerity, Pink Fiat, Sybil Holmes, and Mrs. Parker and P. × domesticum cv. Lavender Grand Slam) cultivars. The relative growth rate of all cultivars tested increased with GA3 treatments. In conjunction with the increase in growth rate, each of the cultivars showed a reduction in the root: shoot ratio and chlorophyll content per unit leaf area with no change in the percent moisture. These Pelargonium cultivars are genetically diverse, showing that GA3 can stimulate growth over a wide range of cultivars. Chemical name used: gibberellic acid (GA3).
Sven E. Svenson, Fred T. Davies Jr., and Calvin E. Meier
The influence of ectomycorrhizae on drought acclimation was studied in an open-pollinated family of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Seedlings inoculated with Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker and Couch (Pt) maintained a higher shoot relative growth rate under high and low soil moisture regimes. However, fascicle area, shoot and root mass, and fascicle nutrient elemental content were similar for seedlings inoculated with Pt and noninoculated seedlings. Seedlings under low soil moisture were drought-acclimated by five 11-day drought cycles. During peak water deficit (cycle 6), drought-acclimated, Pt-inoculated seedlings had the lowest predawn fascicle water potential (ψ pd), conserved water with lowest bulk fascicle diffusive conductance (g), and maintained low g and transpiration (E) during recovery (cycle 6). Enhanced drought acclimation of Pt-inoculated seedlings was independent of plant size and fascicle nutrient content.
Seenithamby Lgogendra, Harry W. Janes, Harry Motto, and Gene Giacomelli
With the increasing establishment of greenhouses in conjunction with resource recovery projects (i.e., producing electricity by burning a low cost fuel), greenhouse facilities have access to low cost heat and in many cases electricity as well. In this regard we have been studying the production of spinach with the use of supplemental light.
The goal of the research was to establish the relationship between light and productivity and to also investigate the effects of light on tissue nitrate levels. The data indicate that an average daily PPF of 13-14 moles will provide enough energy to maximize the plant's relative growth rate. It was also found that supplemental HPS light with a PPF of 90 μmoles/m2/sec given over a 12h period will increase the total light received by a plant in mid-winter by about 50% and lead to a 10% decrease in leaf nitrate level.
Juan Carlos Diaz-Perez and Kenneth Shackel
Tomato fruits showed diurnal fluctuations in size in addition to long-term irreversible enlargement. Diurnal fluctuations were highly related to the stage of fruit development. In all stages, the maximum relative growth rate occurred in the morning and the minimum RGR at midday. Midday depression of RGR became more severe as fruits developed. In young fruits, RGR was nearly constant over the day. A small depression in growth was observed only at midday. In more developed fruits, RGR was positive during the first half of the day, followed by near zero values in the afternoon, and a. recovery in early night. In mature fruits, overall fruit growth was minimum and RGR was positive only in the morning. Fruit shrinkage was often seen at midday in mature fruits.
Douglas D. Archbold
Over 4 years, using estimates of fruit dry weight derived from diameter measurements in situ, cultivar variation in apple fruit relative growth rate (RGR) in the period following June drop was evident. These differences diminished as the season progressed however. Using estimates of dry weight per cell, fruit cell absolute growth rate increased over time and RGR showed no clear pattern in contrast to the RGR of whole fruit. There were no cultivar differences in carbohydrate allocation among the soluble, starch, and remaining ethanol-insoluble, non-hydrolyzable pools irrespective of cultivar RGR. The storage carbohydrate pool comprised an increasing fraction of the total dry weight over time with the starch pool comprising 10 to 25% of the storage carbohydrate, varying with season and cultivar. Neither fruit competition within a cluster nor post-June drop thinning altered fruit RGR or carbohydrate allocation patterns when compared to fruit thinned post-bloom.
Muntubani D. S. Nzima, George C. Martin, and Chic Nishijima
Trees that fruited during 1990 retained 67.3% of the inflorescence buds produced per branch in 1991 compared to 63.1% for trees that were defoliated immediately after harvest in 1990 and 21.3% by trees that were fruiting in 1991. Shading reduced bud retention similar to fruiting.
Defoliation after nut harvest accentuated the delayed costs of reproduction caused by previous season's fruiting whereas shading produced significantly greater immediate costs. Shading effects on the allocation of carbon to buds, leaves and shoots were similar to those of fruiting. Leaf net photosynthesis under shade conditions was reduced to 14.27% of control trees and this led to a significant reduction in the relative growth rates of all the organs surveyed.