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Nobuko Sugimoto, A. Daniel Jones, and Randolph Beaudry

. Putative (dashed lines) and demonstrated (solid lines) pathways involved in branched-chain ester biosynthesis. Genes in bold indicate that they are regulated by feedback inhibition, threonine deaminase is inhibited by isoleucine, but stimulated by valine

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Xinjing Qu, Hui Wang, Ming Chen, Jiao Liao, Jun Yuan, and Genhua Niu

related to the growth and development of a plant, but also related to the impact of various environmental factors ( Fiehn, 2002 ; Zhang et al., 2016 ). By identifying metabolites and metabolic pathways, the relationship between plants and the environment

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Xiaoxu Yang, Chang Liu, Zhishan Yan, Youjun Fan, Guojun Feng, and Dajun Liu

Environmental factors (daylength and temperature) and internal signals (gibberellins and autonomous pathways) simultaneously regulate flowering time in plants ( Bhakta et al., 2017 ; Putterill et al., 2004 ). Higher plants detect fluctuations in

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Diana M. Cheng, Gad G. Yousef, and Mary Ann Lila

are 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and polypodine B ( Grebenok et al., 1991 , 1994 ). Phytoecdysteroids are polyhydroxylated triterpenoids biosynthesized from phytosterols through the mevalonic acid pathway ( Adler and Grebenok, 1999 ). Although the role of

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Robert L. Jarret, Gloria E. Barboza, Fabiane Rabelo da Costa Batista, Terry Berke, Yu-Yu Chou, Amanda Hulse-Kemp, Neftali Ochoa-Alejo, Pasquale Tripodi, Aniko Veres, Carolina Carrizo Garcia, Gabor Csillery, Yung-Kuang Huang, Erzsebet Kiss, Zsofia Kovacs, Mihaly Kondrak, Magda Lisette Arce-Rodriguez, Marisel A. Scaldaferro, and Antal Szoke

., 2017 ). Advances in the understanding of the molecular biology of the capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway often have focused on the identification of new candidate genes, the characterization of some key previously identified genes, and the exploration of

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Bo Wang, Weimin Wu, Xicheng Wang, Zhuangwei Wang, and Yaming Qian

analyzed after pollination. The key pathway involved in grape distant hybridization incompatibility is also discussed. Our results provide useful molecular information for future research of cross incompatibility between V. rotundifolia and V. vinifera

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Chunxian Chen, Paul Cancalon, Carl Haun, and Fred Gmitter Jr.

potency are: paradisin C > 6′,7′-dihydroxybergamottin > bergamottin > isoimperatorin > bergapten > bergaptol ( Ohnishi et al., 2000 ; Row et al., 2006 ). The former three are also most abundant. According to the bergamottin biosynthesis pathway ( Fig. 1

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Jollanda Effendy, Don R. La Bonte, and Niranjan Baisakh

H2 (TH2)— IbSIn04, basic Helix-loop-helix (bHLH)— IbSIn30a , and IbRPK . The late response genes included those involved in the lignin and suberin biosynthesis pathway [caffeic acid 3- O -methyl transferase (CCOMT), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL

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David R. Rudell, Sara Serra, Nathanael Sullivan, James P. Mattheis, and Stefano Musacchi

involvement of several biochemical pathways in nonclimacteric ripening ( Zhang et al., 2010 ). During peach ripening, the role of amino acids and stored proteins in the early stage of peach development as substrates of the phenylpropanoid pathway and energy

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Nihad Alsmairat, Philip Engelgau, and Randolph Beaudry

The synthetic and/or catabolic pathways of the amino acids valine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, phenylalanine, and alanine contribute to the formation of odor-active alcohols, aldehydes, carbonyls, and esters in edible plant parts ( Azevedo et