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Ricardo Goenaga, Adolfo Quiles, and A. Graves Gillaspie

Cowpea or Southernpea [ Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] is the most economically important indigenous African legume crop ( Langyintuo et al., 2003 ). The crop is also an important staple in many parts of the United States, South and Central America

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Robert L. Meagher Jr., Rodney N. Nagoshi, James T. Brown, Shelby J. Fleischer, John K. Westbrook, and Carlene A. Chase

Sunn hemp, Crotalaria juncea L., is a warm-season legume that is planted before or after a vegetable cash crop to add nutrients and organic matter to the soil ( Cherr et al., 2006 , 2007 ; Mansoer et al., 1997 ; Wang et al., 2005 ). This cover

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Harbans L. Bhardwaj and Anwar A. Hamama

good nitrogen fixer and can also be used as forage or hay ( Oplinger et al., 1990 ). Mungbean is one of the most important food legume crops in Asia. It is also gaining importance in other parts of the world such as Australia and Canada. The United

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Natasha R. Rice and Michael W. Smith

Legume ground covers in pecan orchards can reduce nitrogen inputs and increase beneficial insects. Preliminary data indicate that certain legumes can supply over 100 kg·ha-1 N. Additionally, certain legumes have high aphid populations which attract beneficial insects. When aphid populations on the legumes crash, beneficial insects seek alternative food sources in the pecan trees, thus reducing the necessity for pesticide applications. Preliminary studies suggest that a mixture of 'Dixie' crimson clover and hairy vetch produces high populations of beneficial insects and over 100 kg·ha-1 N. Treatments were established at four pecan orchard sites in Oklahoma, each with 5 ha of a crimson clover/vetch mixture and 5 ha of native grass sod. Additions of 0-200 kg·ha-1 N were added to the sod plots but no supplemental N was added to the legume plots. Nitrogen and biomass production by the legumes, and leaf N concentration of pecans were determined. In addition, both aphid and beneficial insect populations were monitored in the legume and grass treatments, and in the pecan trees. Results will be discussed in the presentation.

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Şurhan Göl, Sami Doğanlar, and Anne Frary

( Hacıseferoğulları et al., 2003 ). Moreover, it is a perfect rotational crop because the nitrogen fixing bacteria in its roots help to enhance soil productivity. Indeed, faba bean is one of the most efficient temperate legumes in terms of nitrogen fixation ( Phillips

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Waltram Ravelombola, Ainong Shi, Jun Qin, Yuejin Weng, Gehendra Bhattarai, Bazgha Zia, Wei Zhou, and Beiquan Mou

., 2017 ). Cowpea [ Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.], 2 n = 2 x = 22, is one the most economically important legumes widely grown in sub-Saharan Africa ( Singh et al., 2003 ). Cowpea is a good source of protein for human consumption ( Weng et al., 2017

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N.R. Rice, M.W. Smith, R.D. Eikenbary, D.C. Arnold, W.L. Tedders, B.W. Wood, G.G. Taylor, B.S. Landgraf, and G.E. Barlow

Annual legume ground covers were evaluated in pecan (Carya illinoinensis) orchards to supply nitrogen and increase beneficial arthropods. Treatments were established at two sites, each with 5 ha of a `Dixie' crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum) /hairy, vetch (Vicia villosa) mixture and 5 ha of grass sod. Data indicated that the legume mixture supplied over 100 kg·ha-1 N to the pecan trees. Beneficial arthropods were greater in orchards with legume ground covers than in orchards with a grass groundcover. Lady beetles and green lacewings were the most important spring predators, and green lacewings were the most important fall predator. The Species distribution on the ground covers differed from that in the canopy. Coleomegilla maculata lengi, Hippodamia convergens and Coccinella septempunctata were the most abundant lady beetle species in the legume ground covers, and Olla v-nigrum, Cycloneda munda, and Hippodamia convergens were the most abundant species in the pecan canopies. Beneficial arthropods appeared to suppress injurious pecan aphids.

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Ricardo Goenaga, A. Graves Gillaspie Jr, and Adolfo Quiles

Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important grain legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable, and its dry beans provide 22% to 25% protein ( Goenaga et al., 2008 ; Murillo-Amador et al., 2006 ). Because of its

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Emillie M. Skinner, Juan Carlos Díaz-Pérez, Sharad C. Phatak, Harry H. Schomberg, and William Vencill

Cover crops are important in sustainable agricultural systems because they help improve soil organic matter and reduce soil erosion, among other benefits. Sunnhemp is a tropical legume that could be used as a summer cover crop in the southeastern

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Thierry E. Besançon, Maggie H. Wasacz, and Joseph R. Heckman

establishment and termination. Cereal grain (Poaceae), legumes (Fabaceae), and mustards (Brassicaceae) crops have shown to be beneficial cover crops in vegetables for weed control ( Price and Norsworthy, 2013 ). Using a rye ( Secale cereale ) cover crop for