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William H. Olson and Richard P. Buchner

English walnut (Juglans regia) producers in California compete with many insect and disease pests to produce an acceptable crop. Traditional control strategies work reasonably well for most pests. However, environmental concerns, loss of certain pesticides and new or impending regulations threaten the use of many traditional techniques for control of many of the pests. Codling moth (Cydia pomonella), walnut husk fly (Rhagoletis completa), and walnut aphid (Chromaphis juglandicola) are the major insects that affect California walnut production. Control strategies that use integrated pest management programs, beneficial insects, mating disruption, insect growth regulators, improved monitoring techniques and precise treatment timing based on the insect's life cycle are leading edge techniques currently available for insect control in walnuts. Major diseases include walnut blight (Xanthomonas campestris pv. juglandis), crown gall (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) and crown and root rot (Phytophthora spp). Both copper resistant and copper sensitive strains of the walnut blight bacterium are best controlled with combinations of copper bactericides and maneb instead of copper materials alone. A new computer model, Xanthocast, used to forecast the need for walnut blight treatment is under evaluation. Crown gall is managed using a preplant biological control agent and a heat treatment to eradicate existing galls. Phytophthora crown and root rot is dealt with primarily by site selection, irrigation management and rootstock selection.

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Barbara L. Goulart

An in-the-trenches researcher/coordinator viewpoint of a northeast regional LISA grant funded from 1989-93 is presented. The specifics of the logistics of coordinating a multi-state grant in a fledgling granting program is emphasized, as well as the evolution of the content and focus of the research directions for the grant Evaluation of Alternative Strategies for Small Fruit Production (Univ. of Vermont Agreement 92-08-01). This was a project in which five states in the northeastern United States proposed to cooperate on a multi-disciplinary project exploring the biological and economic feasibility of selected production practices for small fruit. These practices were selected because they showed potential for increasing net profit by reducing purchased inputs or maximizing yield. Information transfer, before, during, and after the studies was emphasized, using such diverse means as grower experimental plots, the participation of growers in integrated pest management programs, the development and publication of economic data relevant to the projects, the development of a LISA small fruit newsletter, as well as more traditional means of information dissemination such as grower meetings, and trade and scientific publications.

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George P. Opit, Yan Chen, Kimberly A. Williams, James R. Nechols, and David C. Margolies

This project was funded by USDA North Central Region Integrated Pest Management Grant no. 58-5430-8-131 and USDA National Research Initiative Biologically-Based Pest Management Program Award no. 2002-34381-12146. This manuscript has been assigned

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Erfan K. Vafaie, H. Brent Pemberton, Mengmeng Gu, David Kerns, Micky D. Eubanks, and Kevin M. Heinz

Pest management decisions in an integrated pest management strategy rely on pest thresholds; however, thresholds have been poorly defined and investigated in greenhouse ornamental production, often resulting in prophylactic use of insecticides. For

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Leah L. Granke, Layla E. Crawford, and Mary K. Hausbeck

an optimum temperature of 20 °C in a glasshouse environment ( Daughtrey et al., 1995 ). Better understanding the effects of various environmental factors on spore release and disease development could provide a framework for an integrated pest

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Rachelyn C. Dobson, Mary Rogers, Jennifer L.C. Moore, and Ricardo T. Bessin

other agricultural integrated pest management (IPM) programs by constructing screen houses that cover the crop in the field ( Ausher, 1997 ). These screen houses have been widely adopted and proven to be economically feasible in Israel, where they are

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Candace Bartholomew, Benjamin L. Campbell, and Victoria Wallace

passed into law with an effective date of 1 July 1999. PA99-165 required 1) pesticide applicators to have supervisor or operator certification; 2) local board of education to establish pest control policy (traditional or integrated pest management); 3) at

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Steve M. Spangler, Dennis D. Calvin, Joe Russo, and Jay Schlegel

.P. 1996 Northeast sweet corn action thresholds and decision-making guide 87 92 Adams R.G. Clark J.C. Northeast sweet corn production and integrated pest management manual Univ. Connecticut Coop. Ext., Storrs Dively, G.P. 2006 Does it pay to grow Bt sweet

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Ronald C. Stephenson, Christine E.H. Coker, Benedict C. Posadas, Gary R. Bachman, Richard L. Harkess, John J. Adamczyk, and Patricia R. Knight

development of integrated pest management (IPM) programs. These programs involve use of observation of pest populations in the field to direct timing of pesticide applications. Central to the concept of IPM is use of an economic threshold of a population level

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Michele Bakacs, Amy Rowe, William T. Hlubik, and Jan Zientek

School Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Program encourages minimal pesticide use and the use of low impact pesticides in addition to strict 72-h notification requirements when more toxic pesticides are used [New Jersey Department of Environmental