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Catherine M. Whitman and Erik S. Runkle

treatments were cooled in plug trays and transplanted after vernalization. In all greenhouse areas, from 0600 to 2200 hr , high-pressure sodium lamps provided a supplemental photosynthetic photon flux ( PPF ) of 40 to 50 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 at the canopy level

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Dave Llewellyn, Katherine Schiestel, and Youbin Zheng

introduction to light-emitting diodes HortScience 43 1944 1946 Currey, C.J. Lopez, R.G. 2013 Cuttings of Impatiens, Pelargonium , and Petunia propagated under light-emitting diodes and high-pressure sodium lamps have comparable growth, morphology, gas

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Neil O. Anderson, Peter D. Ascher, Vincent Fritz, Charlie Rohwer, Steven Poppe, Shengrui Yao, Patricia Johnson, Lee Klossner, Neal S. Eash, Barbara E. Liedl, and Judith Reith-Rozelle

; darkness). Subsequently, it was greenhouse forced to prompt vegetative shoots from rhizomes (long days, 0800–1600 hr + 2200–0200 hr night interruption supplemental lighting at 150 μmol·m −2 ·sec −1 , 400-W high-pressure sodium lamps; 18.5/22.0 °C day

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Christopher J. Currey and Roberto G. Lopez

-extension lighting. An oscillating high-pressure sodium lamp (Beamflicker; Parsource, Petaluma, CA) delivered a supplemental photosynthetic photon flux ( PPF ) varying between 3 and 59 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 at plant height [as measured with a quantum sensor (LI

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Fhatuwani N. Mudau, Puffy Soundy, and Elsa S. du Toit

.7 °C (summer). The sprouted cuttings were grown with photoperiod extended to 16 h by 1000-W, high-pressure sodium lamps 16-h by 100-W, high-pressure sodium lamps (250 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 PPF ) for 1 months. Rooted cuttings on sand culture were

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Raymond M. Wheeler

ability to tailor the spectrum for plant growth and photobiological studies ( Sager et al., 1982 ). Further testing with gaseous discharge lighting led to the development of “high”-pressure mercury lamps in the 1930s followed by metal halide and high-pressure

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W. Garrett Owen and Roberto G. Lopez

) , 70 µmol·m −2 ·s –1 delivered from high-pressure sodium lamps (B) , or LED arrays delivering 100 µmol·m −2 ·s −1 of (%) 100:0 red:blue (C) , 100 µmol·m −2 ·s −1 of 50:50 red:blue (D) , or 25 (E) , 50 (F) , or 100 (G) µmol·m −2 ·s −1 0

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Qingwu Meng and Erik S. Runkle

Purple Classic’ (WPC) petunia ( Runkle et al., 2012 ). High-pressure sodium lamps, either fixed or with a rotating reflector, also promote flowering of LDPs and inhibit flowering of SDPs ( Blanchard and Runkle, 2009 , 2010 ; Whitman et al., 1998 ). High-pressure

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W. Garrett Owen and Roberto G. Lopez

, ON, Canada). Greenhouse day and night air temperature set points were maintained at a constant 23 °C. The photoperiod was 16 h (0600 to 2200 hr ) consisting of natural daylengths with day-extension lighting from high-pressure sodium lamps [(HPS); e

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Neil O. Anderson, Esther Gesick, Peter D. Ascher, Steven Poppe, Shengrui Yao, David Wildung, Patricia Johnson, Vincent Fritz, Charlie Rohwer, Lee Klossner, Neal Eash, Barbara E. Liedl, and Judith Reith-Rozelle

transplanted and grown under greenhouse conditions (lat. 45° N; St. Paul, MN) for 4 weeks vegetative growth (long days, 0800 to 1600 hr supplied by 400-W high-pressure sodium lamps + 2200 to 0200 hr night interruption; 18.5/22.0 °C day/night) followed by 6