Peach-to-nectarine mutations are associated with broad pleiotropic effects. The present study addresses the heritability of nectarine-specific effects in three hybrid families. A comparison of peach and nectarine siblings showed that nectarine fruit were smaller (less fresh weight), rounder, darker, redder, and had higher levels of sugars and organic acids. These heritable characteristics are similar to effects of spontaneous peach-to-nectarine mutations described previously.
I-C Wen, W.B. Sherman, and K.E. Koch
Gerardo H. Nunez, Hilda Patricia Rodríguez-Armenta, Rebecca L. Darnell, and James W. Olmstead
2 ) and residual variances (σ R 2 ) were used to compute the broad-sense heritability ( H 2 ) of each trait. The genetic covariance between two traits (σ G(AB) ) was used to estimate the genetic correlation between them as previously done ( Fita et
Guo-Liang Jiang, Laban K. Rutto, and Shuxin Ren
). The broad sense heritability was estimated on a genotype mean basis ( Fehr, 1987 ), as where σ g 2 is the genotypic variance, σ gy 2 is the genotype-by-year interaction variance, σ e 2 is the environmental variance, r is the number of replications
Iban Eduardo, Pere Arús, Antonio José Monforte, Javier Obando, Juan Pablo Fernández-Trujillo, Juan Antonio Martínez, Antonio Luís Alarcón, Jose María Álvarez, and Esther van der Knaap
. Heritability (h 2 ) was estimated in each location independently from the ANOVA: where NIL i is the effect of the NIL, and the estimate of h 2 was calculated as where V b and V t are the between-family (genetic variance) and total variances
J.W. Gonzales, D.P. Coyne, D.T. Lindgren, D. Schaaf, and K. M. Eskridge
The potato leafhopper (PLH), Empoasca fabae Harris is the most important Empoasca species attacking dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in North America. The objective of this study was to determine the heritability (h2) of PLH injury based on parent-offspring regression analysis of F3 means on individual F2 plants derived from crosses of pinto `Sierra' (resistant) × great northern `Starlight' (susceptible), and black bean `Tacarigua' (resistant) × `Starlight' (susceptible). Low narrow-sense heritability values of 0.29 ± 0.06 and 0.28 ± 0.10, respectively, were obtained for the above crosses. The low narrow-sense heritability estimates indicated large environmental effects on the expression of PLH injury in dry beans. An allelic test showed that both resistant parents possessed the same genes for resistance.
Qiang Yao, Shawn A. Mehlenbacher, and David C. Smith
The Oregon State Univ. breeding program is developing improved hazelnut cultivars for the kernel market. Most traits of interest are quantitative, yet there is little information available on their heritability. In this study, the heritability of 10 morphological and 4 phenological traits was estimated by regression of offspring means on midparent values. Seedlings from 35 crosses among 41 parents made in 1988 and 1989 were used. The parents represented the wide genetic diversity used in the breeding program. Estimates were all high, ranging from 0.56 for amount of kernel fiber and 0.58 for time of catkin elongation to 0.87 for percent kernel and 0.89 for nut depth.
Valdomiro A.B. de Souza, David H. Byrne, and Jeremy F. Taylor
Heritability estimates are useful to predict genetic progress among offspring when the parents are selected on their performance, but they also provide information about major changes in the amount and nature of genetic variability through generations. Genetic and phenotypic correlations, on the other hand, are useful for better planning of selection programs. In this research, seedlings of 39 families resulting from crosses among 27 peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] cultivars and selections were evaluated for date of full bloom (DFB), date of ripening (DR), fruit period development (FDP), flower density (FD), node density (ND), fruit density (FRD), fruit weight (WT), soluble solids content (SS), apical protuberance (TIP), red skin color (BLUSH), and shape (SH) in 1993 and 1994. The data were analyzed using the mixed linear model. The best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) was used to estimate fixed effects and predict breeding values (BV). Restricted maximum likelihood (REML) was used to estimate variance components, and a multiple-trait model to estimate genetic and phenotypic covariances between traits. The data indicates high heritability for DFB, DR, FDP, and BLUSH, intermediate heritability for WT, TIP, and SH, and low heritability for FD, ND, FRD, and SS. They also indicate year effect as a major environmental component affecting seedling performance. High correlation estimates were found between some traits, but further analysis is needed to determine their significance.
Christopher S. Cramer*
Heritability estimates of bolting percentage (BP), pink root (PR) and Fusarium basal rot (FBR) incidences, and percentage of single centered (PSC) bulbs were calculated for an intermediate-day, open-pollinated onion population using selection response and half-sib (HS) family analyses. BP was determined by counting the number of seedstalks per plot when the population was seeded at an earlier planting date to induce bolting. PR and FBR incidences were determined by rating 30 bulbs/plot for the severity of PR and FBR, and calculated an incidence rate from the number of infected bulbs out of 30 rated. The PSC bulbs was determined by cutting transversely 30 bulbs at the vertical center of the bulb and looking for the presence of a single growing point or multiple growing points within 1.3 cm from the center of the bulb. Families were also evaluated for bulb quality that consisted of shape, size, maturity, firmness, number of scale layers, and dry outer scale thickness, adherence, retention, and color. Families were selected based upon an index that equally weighted BP, PR and FBR incidences, PSC bulbs, and bulb quality. No progress was made for BP even though the narrow sense heritability (h2) estimate was 0.51. PR and FBR incidence was reduced by 18% and 12%, respectively, and realized heritability (RH) estimates of 0.65 and 0.60, respectively, were calculated. h2 estimates calculated through HS family analysis was 0.46 and 0.37, respectively, for these two traits. Very little progress was made for the PSC bulbs and this was reflected in a RH estimate of 0.17. However, the h2 estimate was 0.71, suggesting that progress should be possible.
W. R. Maluf, S. M. Azevedo, and V.P. Campos
Heritabilities for resistance to root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne javanica and Meloidogyne incognita races 1, 2, 3, and 4) were studied in a population of 226 sweetpotato clones of diverse origin. For each nematode isolate tested, 128-cell speedling trays were filled with previously inoculated substrate (30000 eggs/1000 mL substrate). Sweetpotato clones suitably tagged and identified were randomly planted in the cells (one plant/cell), with a total of four plants per clone per isolate. Ninety days after inoculation, sweetpotato plants had their roots washed for substrate removal, and treated with 150 mg·L–1 Phloxine B to stain nematode egg masses. The number of egg masses per root was recorded, and plants were accordingly assigned scores from 0 (highly resistant) to 5 (highly susceptible). Broad-sense heritability estimates were 0.87, 0.91, 0.81, 0.95, and 0.93 respectively for resistance to M. javanica and races 1, 2, 3, and 4 of M. incognita. The frequencies of resistant genotypes were higher for M. javanica and lower for M. incognita race 2. Genotypic correlations (rG) among the resistances to the various Meloidogyne isolates utilized were weak, ranging from 0.11 to 0.57, suggesting independent genetic controls. Clones could be selected, however, with high levels of resistance to all nematode isolates tested. (This work was supported by CNPq, CAPES, FAPEMIG, and FAEPE/UFLA.)
Freddy Mora, Cristóbal M. Concha, and Carlos R. Figueroa
, 2014 ; Santos et al., 2011 ). Threshold models have been reported to be useful for the genetic evaluation of categorical traits ( Sorensen et al., 1994 ), enabling the estimation of genetic parameters, including heritability and genetic correlations