To study the vegetative flushing pattern of M. integrifolia (cvs. Keaau, Kau and Kakea) trees in Hawaii and determine when these vegetative flushes flower, trees were monitored for an entire year (1988), and shoots from these flushes were monitored for flowering during the 1988-89, 1989-90 and 1990-91 flowering seasons. Flushing occurred year-round but was most frequent during the spring-summer and fall months which coincided with the end of the flowering season and the period of fruit maturation. For all cultivars, sporadic flowering occurred in 1988-89 on shoots that were less than one year-old but was not always associated with the oldest shoots. Flowering in 1989-90 and 1990-91 was observed on a larger proportion of the shoots and occurred on shoots that had emerged throughout 1988. Flowering was most abundant on two year-old shoots (1990-91) and could occur on shoots that had flowered in the previous season (1989-90).
M.A. Nagao, E.B. Ho-a, and J.M. Yoshimoto
Andrew G. Reynolds, Margaret Cliff, Douglas A. Wardle, and Marjorie King
Eighty-five cultivars, selections and clones from European winegrape (Vitis spp.) breeding and selection programs were evaluated between 1993 and 1995 in a randomized complete-block experiment. These included Vitis vinifera clones from France as well as Freiburg, Geisenheim, and Weinsberg, Germany. Small yield and fruit composition differences were found amongst the 'Chardonnay' clones. The standard Prosser clone produced wines with highest earthy aroma and acidity and with lowest perfumy aroma, body and finish; Dijon clones 76 and 96 were most perfumy and least vegetal. `Pinot noir' clones also differed somewhat in terms of yield and fruit composition; `Samtröt', `Gamay Beaujolais', and clone Q1342-01 were amongst the most highly colored clones. These clones also tended to have the most intense berry and currant aromas as well as berry, cherry, and currant flavors. These aforementioned clones appear to be highly adaptable to viticultural regions where low heat units during fruit maturation presently limit industry growth.
William C. Mitchell and Gojko Jelenkovic
The NAD-dependent and NADP-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase activities of strawberries (Fragaria xananassa Duch.) were found to have broad substrate specificities including those alcohols and aldehydes responsible for strawberry aroma and flavor either directly or through their ester products. NAD-dependent activities were greatest against short-chained alcohols, whereas the NADP-dependent activities were most active against aromatic and terpene alcohols. Differences were seen in substrate specificity between receptacle and achene alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Alcohol dehydrogenase activities were found to be developmentally regulated in receptacle tissue and increased during the period of fruit maturation and ripening. Isoelectric focusing of NAD-dependent ADH activities showed that several isozymes of this enzyme exist, that they differ between receptacle and achene tissues, and that they vary among specific genotypes. Our results suggest that NAD- and NADP-dependent ADH activities are integral components of flavor and fragrance volatile production in ripening strawberries.
D. Scott NeSmith and Gerard Krewer
Plants of the rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade) cultivars Brightwell, Climax, and Tifblue were subjected to pollination with bees or to applications of 250 mg·L-1 of gibberellic acid (GA3) to examine the influence on fruit size and maturation period. Plants were thinned to a similar fruit density (FD) 4 weeks after anthesis. `Tifblue' and `Climax' fruit were smaller on GA3-treated than on bee-pollinated plants, but no difference was observed for `Brightwell'. The fruit maturation period for `Climax' was not affected by treatments, but `Brightwell' and `Tifblue' fruit on pollinated plants ripened 2 weeks earlier than fruit on GA3-treated plants. These data suggest that excess fruit load is not the primary factor responsible for the smaller fruit size and lengthened fruit development period resulting from GA3 applications to rabbiteye blueberries.
D.C. Elfving, C.L. Chu, E.C. Lougheed, and R.A. Cline
Foliar daminozide (DZ) and paclobutrazol (PBZ) applications delayed apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruit maturation and ripening at harvest the year of treatment. There was little effect on juice soluble solids or mean fruit weight. Following 24 weeks of air storage, treated fruit were firmer and displayed less core browning than those untreated. Trunk-drench or soil-spray applications of PBZ had little or no effect on any of these quality or physiological parameters of the fruit. In the year after treatment there were no residual effects of either DZ or PBZ on any fruit physiological parameters, despite significant PBZ-induced reductions in shoot growth, fruit size, seed number, pedicel length, and alterations in fruit shape. Chemical names used: butanedioic acid mono(2,2-dimethylhydrazide) (daminozide); β-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-α-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol).
S. J. Kays
The O2 and CO2 concentration between the shuck and shell and within the nut of individual pecans (Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch cv. Stuart) was monitored over a 4 week period from predehiscence to post-dehiscence. Internal O2 levels increased after dehiscence from initial concentrations of 16-17% to near that of the external environment after 3 weeks. Internal CO2 concentration, conversely, decreased substantially after dehiscence. Treatment of nuts over the same physiological stages of development with 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 21.0 and 100% O2 had little effect on the induction and development of the kernel's normal pigmentation. Both high and low O2 levels did, however, produce some discoloration after 21 days of treatment. Changes in the internal nut O2 partial pressure are apparently not a significant factor in the induction and development of the normal complement of pecan kernel pigments during fruit maturation.
James C. Fulton, Francisco O. Holguin, Robert L. Steiner, and Mark E. Uchanski
Stip is a physiological disorder that affects certain pepper (Capsicum annuum) cultivars, most notably bell-pod types. It has been attributed in the literature to nutrient imbalances, temperature extremes, and/or other environmental stressors. Symptoms present as brown, black, and yellow ovoid-shaped necrotic lesions ≈0.5 to 1.2 cm long by 0.5 cm wide. Between 2014 and 2015, symptomatic and asymptomatic pods were harvested from 15 commercial farms in southern New Mexico. Fluorescent microscopy comparisons of harvested symptomatic tissue revealed a unique fluorescent signature and the absence of chlorophyll. A new spectral peak centered around 560 nm was observed in symptomatic tissue. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses of these tissues detected significant differences in 13 metabolites, of which several have been associated with fruit maturation and/or senescence. This report represents the first combination of a detailed microscopic description and metabolite profile of field-grown symptomatic plants with this disorder.
Changes in morphology of epidermal layers and in permeability of mesocarp membranes of ‘Honey Dew’ and netted muskmelon fruits (Cucumis melo L., var. inodorus and reticulatus, respectively) were compared for 10 through 60 days after anthesis to relate tissue changes to storage life. Twenty-day-old netted muskmelon fruit developed lenticular tissue (net) over the entire melon surface. The muskmelon net had become fissured by 50 days after anthesis (10 days postharvest). ‘Honey Dew’ fruit did not develop lenticular tissue nor did the epidermis become fissured. ‘Honey Dew’ and netted muskmelon fruits had similar membrane electrolyte leakage characteristics (60% ± 3%) when harvested ripe, but, after 10 days at 20°C, electrolyte leakage was 70% and 87%, respectively. Membrane electrolyte leakage for both cultivars had a high regression coefficient (R 2 = 0.97) with fruit maturation and postharvest senescence. An intact epidermis indirectly affected mesocarp membrane permeability and perhaps contributed to differences in muskmelon cultivar storage life.
Zhiguo Ju and William J. Bramlage
Effects of fruit maturity, aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) and 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethephon) preharvest treatments, and storage conditions on cuticular phenolic concentration, α-farnesene oxidation, and scald susceptibility of `Delicious' apple were studied. Advanced maturity and ethephon reduced scald. AVG totally inhibited scald when the AVG-treated fruit were stored in low-ethylene room (<1 μL•L-1). In commercial room (ethylene >5 μL•L-1), however, AVG did not reduce scald. Advanced maturity and ethephon did not alter α-farnesene accumulation but significantly reduced conjugated triene (CT281) formation. AVG reduced α-farnesene and CT281 accumulation to very low levels in low-ethylene room but not in commercial room. Both advanced maturity and ethephon increased free phenolics in fruit cuticle, while AVG reduced them. Free cuticular phenolics increased during early storage in ethephon-treated and control fruit but not in AVG-treated fruit. Overall, free phenolics in fruit cuticle negatively correlated with formation of CT281 and scald susceptibility of apples. Neither fruit maturation nor AVG or ethephon treatment significantly affected lipid-soluble antioxidant concentration in fruit cuticle.
Wayne Loescher, Tad Johnson, Randolph Beaudry, and Sastry Jayanty
Sorbitol is the major carbohydrate translocated into apple fruit where it is normally metabolized to fructose. In watercored apple fruit tissues, however, the intercellular spaces become flooded and sorbitol content is consistently higher than in nonwatercored apples, suggesting a defect in sugar alcohol metabolism or transport. Our previous results have identified and characterized two sorbitol transporters, MsSOT1 and MsSOT2, in apple fruit tissues. Sorbitol transporter gene expression has been implicated in development of watercore with MsSOT expression diminished or absent in certain watercored fruit tissues. To explore this further, we have investigated the relationships between watercore, fruit maturation, fruit composition, and MsSOT expression in a number of apple cultivars that differ in watercore susceptibility. We also compared transporter expression between affected (watercored) and healthy parts of the same fruit and between watercored and nonwatercored fruits throughout the maturation and ripening processes. The MsSOT expression was often dramatically reduced in fruit tissues exhibiting watercore. Thus, in susceptible cultivars, maturing (ripening) fruit parenchyma cells lose the ability to transport sorbitol, and this in turn leads to sorbitol accumulation in the apoplastic free space and subsequent flooding of these spaces. These results are consistent with a relationship between watercore and sorbitol transport and also with a genetic susceptibility to the disorder.