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Bernard B. Bible and Suman Singha

Differences in color development between exposed and shaded fruit during the growing season were determined for `Loring' and `Raritan Rose' peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch). The surface color of fruit exposed to sunlight in the upper canopy, and in the shade in the lower canopy, was measured with a tristimulus calorimeter, and L* a* b* values were recorded for each fruit from 17 July through harvest. Color changes (ΔE* ab) during maturation for both cultivars at either canopy position were characterized by large changes in hue (Δ H*ab) and lesser changes in lightness (Δ L*ab) and chroma (Δ C*ab). Upper canopy fruit of both cultivars were redder and darker than the lower canopy fruit initially and at harvest. Flesh firmness for `Loring' and `Raritan Rose' tended to correlate with color change from initial sampling to harvest.

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John R. Stommel and Robert J. Griesbach

practices. Table 1. Mean values and sd s for mature pepper fruit color, fruit length/fruit diameter at midpoint, number of fruit per cluster, leaf color, leaf length, leaf width, plant height, and plant diameter in parental, F 1 , F 2 , and

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Rongcai Yuan, Ulrich Hartmond, Angela Grant, and Walter J. Kender

Influence of young fruit, shoot, and root growth on response of mature `Valencia' oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] to the abscission chemical CMN-pyrazole was examined in 1999 and 2000. CMN-pyrazole dramatically increased ethylene production in mature fruit and reduced the fruit detachment force (FDF), except during a period of reduced response to CMN-pyrazole in early May when spring vegetative growth, young fruit of the following year's crop, and mature fruit were all on the trees. Removal of spring flushes, which included spring vegetative shoots and leafy and leafless inflorescences, prevented any young fruit and shoot growth, but did not inhibit root growth. However, trunk girdling in combination with removal of spring flushes not only prevented growth of young fruit and shoots but also inhibited root growth. During the responsive period, there were no differences in either ethylene production or FDF of CMN-pyrazole-treated mature oranges between 1) the nonmanipulated trees and those manipulated by either 2) removal of spring flushes alone, or 3) in combination with trunk girdling. However, during the less responsive period, ethylene production in CMN-pyrazole-treated mature oranges was significantly lower while the FDF was higher in nonmanipulated trees than in trees treated by either removal of spring flushes alone, or in combination with trunk girdling. There was no difference in either fruit ethylene production or FDF between trees manipulated by (2) removal of spring flushes alone, and (3) removal of spring flushes in combination with trunk girdling regardless of CMN-pyrazole application. Shoot growth terminated at least 2 weeks before the onset of the less responsive period. Removal of young fruit increased response of mature fruit to CMN-pyrazole during the less responsive period. This suggests that hormones from rapidly growing young fruit may be responsible for the occurrence of the less responsive period. Chemical name used: 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole (CMN-pyrazole).

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Jiregna Gindaba and Stephanie J.E. Wand

We investigated the effects of evaporative cooling (EC), kaolin particle film (KP) and 20% shade net (SN) on the control of sunburn, fruit temperature amelioration and fruit quality of `Cripps' Pink' and `Royal Gala' apples [Malus domestica Borkh.] under orchard conditions during the 2003–04 season in Stellenbosch, South Africa. On days with maximum air temperatures of 34 to 37 °C, SN fruit were 5.4 to 9.7 °C cooler, EC fruit were 3.1 to 5.8 °C cooler and KP fruit were 1.5 to 6.4 °C cooler compared to the control (nontreated, CO) fruit. SN was effective in reducing fruit temperature from mid-morning until midafternoon; KP was most effective during late morning and early afternoon but not at midday; EC was effective from late morning on days when EC was activated. SN, followed by KP, was the most effective technique for controlling sunburn in fruit of both cultivars, with EC being less effective. The different technologies reduced fruit blush color compared to the CO treatment, with SN showing the most reduction and EC the least. EC increased fruit mass compared to all other treatments in `Royal Gala', and also increased fruit diameter and mass compared to CO in `Cripps' Pink'. We conclude that under the high radiation levels experienced in South African apple production areas, technologies which reduce irradiance as well as fruit temperature (KP, SN) are more effective in reducing sunburn than those which only reduce fruit temperature (EC). However, radiation-reducing technologies are potentially detrimental to color development on blushed apples.

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I-C Wen, W.B. Sherman, and K.E. Koch

Peach-to-nectarine mutations are associated with broad pleiotropic effects. The present study addresses the heritability of nectarine-specific effects in three hybrid families. A comparison of peach and nectarine siblings showed that nectarine fruit were smaller (less fresh weight), rounder, darker, redder, and had higher levels of sugars and organic acids. These heritable characteristics are similar to effects of spontaneous peach-to-nectarine mutations described previously.

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Ien-Chi Wen, K. E. Koch, and W. B. Sherman

Two peach-to-nectarine mutants were compared with their peach progenitors to quantify physical and biochemical characters associated with this conversion. Both nectarine mutants showed pleiotropic effects that included smaller, rounder, and more-dense fruit with redder skin and altered sugar and organic acid composition relative to those found in their peach progenitors. In addition, one of the nectarine mutants exhibited a later bloom time, a less pronounced change in fruit size, a shorter fruit development period, and an associated capacity to develop red fall leaf color.

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Gerry Neilsen, Peter Parchomchuk, Michael Meheriuk, and Denise Neilsen

Various schedules of 40 g N and 17.5 g P/tree per year were applied with irrigation water (fertigation) to `Summerland McIntosh' apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) trees on M.9 rootstock commencing the year of planting. Leaf K concentrations averaged 0.82% dry mass, indicating deficiency, by the third growing season. This coincided with extractable soil K concentrations of 50-60 μg·g-1 soil in a narrow volume of the coarse-textured soil located within 0.3 m of the emitters. The decline in leaf K concentration was reversed and fruit K concentration increased by additions of K at 15-30 g/tree applied either as granular KCl directly beneath the emitters in spring or as KCl applied as a fertigant in the irrigation water. K-fertilization increased fruit red color, size, and titratable acidity only when leaf K concentration was <1%. Fruit Ca concentration and incidence of bitter pit or coreflush were unaffected by K application. NPK-fertigation commencing upon tree establishment is recommended for high-density apple orchards planted on similar coarse-textured soils.

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Shiow Y. Wang, Gene J. Galletta, Mary J. Camp, and Michael J. Kasperbauer

The influence of mulch types (black polyethylene, red polyethylene, and straw-vetch in raised bed hill culture) on the chemical composition of `Northeaster' and `Primetime' strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) fruit and plant parts was evaluated. Ascorbic acid (AA), malic acid, citric acid, and ellagic acid levels were higher in `Primetime' than in `Northeaster' fruits, while `Northeaster' had a higher soluble solids content (SSC). Fruit grown on straw-vetch had lower SSC than did those grown on the polyethylene mulches. The AA content in the fruit of either cultivar was not affected by the mulch treatment. Fruit grown on the straw-vetch mulch had less red surface and flesh color but higher pigment intensity than fruit grown on the polyethylene mulches. Strawberry plants grown on straw-vetch mulch had the largest leaf area and the highest chlorophyll content, while plants grown on red polyethylene mulch had the smallest leaf area and lowest chlorophyll content. There were significant mulch × cultivar interactions in fruit titratable acid (TA) and AA levels, sugars, citric and ellagic acid contents, leaf area and chlorophyll levels, and soluble carbohydrate and starch contents in leaves, petioles, crowns, crown-roots, and roots. TA was highest in `Northeaster' fruit when grown on red polyethylene, whereas TA was highest in `Primetime' fruit when grown on straw-vetch. The highest fruit citric acid levels were found in straw-vetch mulched plots of `Northeaster', and in black polyethylene mulched plots of `Primetime'. Ellagic acid accumulation was highest in `Northeaster' fruit grown on black polyethylene, and in `Primetime' fruit grown on red polyethylene or straw-vetch mulches. Fruit glucose content was highest in `Northeaster', but lowest in `Primetime', when grown on the straw-vetch mulch. There was a general tendency for soluble carbohydrate and starch levels in plant tissues to be lowest when the plants were grown in red polyethylene mulch and highest when grown in black polyethylene mulch. `Primetime' contained higher total carbohydrate levels than did `Northeaster' in all tissues tested.

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John W. Scott

Standardized phenotyping is being used in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and potato (S. tuberosum) as part of the USDA-funded Solanaceae coordinated agricultural project (SolCAP). In tomato, a panel of 480 lines, 144 fresh market, 144 processing, 44 vintage lines, 48 landraces, and 101 related Solanum species accessions, are being grown over two seasons at multiple locations. These tomato genotypes will also be screened for over 7600 single nucleotide polymorphism markers that are being developed. Characters being phenotyped are hypocotyl color, plant habit, inflorescence (simple or compound), flower fasciation, flowering time, time to maturity, size of blossom scar, and pedicel type (jointless or jointed). Transverse and equatorial cross-sections of fruit are also being scanned to obtain measures of fruit shape and color by tomato analyzer computer software. Other fruit characters being measured are pH, titratable acidity, and soluble solids. Some useful information may come from this phenotyping and genotyping effort. However, in this author's opinion, the value of measuring some of the traits is very limited in the face of much more important breeding traits that are difficult to fit into a standardized phenotyping format. For instance, proper assessment of several fruit disorders is not being attempted, but such data might yield some invaluable marker information. Part of this is the result of funding limitations for the phenotyping effort. However, a major benefit of the SolCAP analysis will be the development of markers that will differentiate the lines being studied, because there is a present lack of polymorphisms in tomato germplasm where wild species introgressions are minimal or distant in time. This will allow breeders to proactively select for recurrent parent backgrounds in backcrossing projects and may aid in the identification of associations of markers with important characteristics. As one looks to the future of standardized phenotyping, there are some important traits that will be difficult to phenotype such as tomato flavor, which is quite subjective and for which there are no good objective measures.