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Raymond A. Cloyd

The way extension specialists and educators conduct programs, such as workshops, and transfer information to their designated clientele, including homeowners, professionals, and specialty groups, has changed within the last decade due to merging departments, budget cuts, reduced operating funds, and lack of refilling vacant positions. These factors have resulted in a number of driving forces that influence the way extension specialists and educators perform their duties, such as accountability, regionalization of extension, impact of technology, and expanding expertise. To be accountable under today's standards, extension specialists and educators must document the impact, relevance, and effectiveness of their programs. Required documentation must include economic, environmental, and human development factors. The effect of downsizing in many states has led to regionalization, which involves sharing extension specialists and educators across state boundaries. Although there are concerns, such as funding issues and evaluation of extension specialists and educators among states, regionalization in general has resulted in collaborative efforts to organize workshops and produce regional publications that serve a wider clientele base. Extension specialists and educators need to use computer-based and electronic technology, such as teleconferencing and distance-education, to present effective programs and address a wider audience, which will reduce the amount of required travel time. Finally, extension specialists and educators need to keep abreast of issues, such as invasive species, and develop programs to increase awareness of the economic and ecological impacts of invasive species in order to effectively serve the clientele base. Extension specialists and educators will more effectively serve their clientele, justify the importance of extension programming, demonstrate extension as a valued resource to administrators, and deal with the challenges of financial constraint existing now and in the foreseeable future by documenting impact, using multi-state programming, adopting new technology, and keeping up with current issues.

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Michael A. Arnold, Tim D. Davis, and David W. Reed

Surveys were sent to 53 North American universities offering horticulture curricula to characterize the types of degrees offered, student demographics, participation in distance education, remuneration and assistance available for graduate students, and faculty rank and salary distributions. Twenty-five institutions responded. This represented 10 PhD, 14 MS, and 12 M. Agr. or MS non-thesis professional degree programs in horticulture and 13 PhD, 13 MS, 12 M. Agr. or M. non-thesis degree programs in plant sciences or a closely related area. On average, graduate students were predominantly Caucasian (70.7%), followed by Asian (16.1%), Black (3.2%), Hispanic (2.6%), and Native American (0.2%). Most were supported by research assistantships (56.3%), with the second largest group being self-supported (13.8%). Teaching assistantships were a small source of support (4.6%). Stipends (12-month equivalent) where variable among fellowships ($2000 to $30,000), teaching ($6600 to $25,000), research ($2000 to $25,239), extension ($12,000 to $17,000), or combination assistantships ($900 to $26,000). Most assistantships included a stipend plus in-state and out-of-state tuition waivers: about half included medical insurance. Mean full-time in-state tuition and fees was $6,535, while out-of-state was $13,876. Participation in distance courses was greatest for non-degree students (18.3%), and low for all others (9.2% to 6.4%). The average academic unit had 15.1 professors, 8.9 associate professors, 6.8 assistant professors, 0.3 senior lecturers, and 1.6 lecturers with mean reported average salaries of $85,142; $70,132; $58,918; $55,608; and $37,887, respectively.

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Emily A. Barton, Susan S. Barton, and Thomas Ilvento

several states to respond to budget reductions is the use of distance education to reduce the number of face-to-face trainings across the state ( McGinnis, 2015 ; Stack, 1997 ; Warmund and Schrock, 1999 ). Upon the introduction of new innovations such as

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Mary M. Peet

courses in field and greenhouse vegetable production and been active in local and national distance education initiatives. She has visited greenhouses in 19 countries, given more than 100 professional presentations, including keynote addresses, has been on

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Elizabeth T. Barton, Emily A. Barton, Susan Barton, Cheryl R. Boyer, Jim Brosnan, Paul Hill, Jared Hoyle, Judson Reid, Jamie Seger, and Eric Stafne

audiences in distance education; 3) informally engage extension audiences via social media; and 4) specifically target the millennial generation—a group notoriously difficult to reach with extension programming. Within our discussion of engagement via social

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interactive teaching tools were developed by Campbell et al. (p. 504) for use by students enrolled in a University of Florida distance education plant identification course. A plant identification quiz used detailed photographs to test students’ ability to

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S. Christopher Marble and Todd P. West

information technology and distance education, as well as informal learning opportunities ( Wells, 2004 ). As the internet is now available virtually anywhere in the developed world, electronic delivery of information has become a preferred method for informal

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Coleman L. Etheredge and Tina M. Waliczek

more options when choosing distance education courses ( Gleason and Greenhow, 2017 ). As of 2018, an estimated 6.9 million students were enrolled in a distance education course ( National Center for Education Statistics, 2020 ). With advances in

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-up. Three weeks after the last flaming, the highest LPG doses used exhibited the fewest weeds of small weight and a low percentage of weed cover, whereas the green turfgrass coverage was high. A New Online Study Tool for Plant Propagation Distance education

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. Early and total yields were greatest with blue and black plastic mulch. Time Invested in Teaching Practices for Three Instructional Methods With the burgeoning number of university courses offered via distance education, concerns regarding the time