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Thomas M. Sjulin, J. Scott Cameron, Carl H. Shanks Jr., and Carlos E. Munoz

In January, 1990, a team of U.S. and Chilean scientists collected native and cultivated Fragaria from central and southern Chile. During the course of this expedition, 363 new accessions of Fragaria were collected. Approximately 2,500 plants of 250 clones were collected from 66 sites in 19 different areas, and 113 seedlots (estimated at over 100,000 seeds) were obtained.

Plants were collected from a wide range of habitats, and considerable variability was observed in vegetative and reproductive characteristics. Fruit were round to conical in shape, deep red to white in color, soft to moderately firm, with soluble solids ranging from 5-18%, dull to glossy skin, bland to strong flavor, low to very high aromatics, and difficult to moderately easy capping. Fruit size in situ approached 4 g, while fruit larger than 12 g were found under cultivated conditions. Strawberry aphids (Chaetosiphon fragaefolii) were found on plants in situ and under cultivation. Little or no evidence of other pests were observed on clones collected in situ.

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Paul W. Bosland

New Mexico State University has a long history of chile pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) improvement. The chile pepper improvement program began in 1888 with Dr. Fabian Garcia, who released the first New Mexican pod type. Today, all New Mexican pod

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Paul W. Bosland and Danise Coon

The New Mexico State University Chile Pepper Breeding and Genetics Program announces the release of ‘NuMex Heritage Big Jim’ chile pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.). ‘NuMex Heritage Big Jim’ is an open-pollinated, improved, New Mexican pod-type cultivar

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Kathleen M. Sullivan and William J. Bramlage

Seven types of chile peppers were tested for differences in susceptibility to postharvest chilling injury (CI). Cherry, cubanelle, Hungarian wax (HW), poblano, serrano, and both mature-green and full-color (red) jalapeño fruit were stored at 2.5, 7, and 15 °C for 0 to 30 days. External C2H4 production at 12 and 24 hours after removal from storage and internal C2H4 concentration at 24 hours were measured. There was no significant difference in C2H4 production after the first 12 hours, but serrano produced significantly less C2H4 than the other types during the second 12 hours. Among the cultivars there were differences in the amounts of internal C2H4 measured: HW had the highest levels measured, and serrano had undetectable levels. CI has been observed on bell and some chile pepper cultivars as small black pits, and the recommended nonchilling storage temperature is 7 °C for all peppers. In this study, scald (a surface browning) was observed on HW and cubanelle fruit in addition to pitting, which occurred on all the cultivars. Susceptibility to chilling varied among pepper types in this study. HW peppers were the most susceptible, manifesting scald after 4 days at 2.5 °C and scald and pits after 16 days at 7 °C. Serrano fruit were the most resistant to CI, only pitting after 23 days at 2.5 °C, and having no symptoms after storage at 7 °C for 30 days. Cherry and poblano peppers developed pits after 8 days at 2.5 °C. Both green and red jalapeños pitted after 12 days at 2.5 °C, and cubanelles had scald after 16 days at 2.5 °C. Poblano fruit had large, deep pits after 8 days at 7 °C, cherry peppers pitted after 12 days, and both green and red jalapeño fruit pitted after 16 days at 7 °C. Both pits and scald were observed on cubanelle fruit after 23 days at 7 °C. Recommendations for storage of peppers should be expanded to accommodate differences among cultivars.

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Gabriela Verdugo Ramírez, Mauricio Cisternas Baez, Ursula Steinfort, Hermine Vogel, and Rosa Cueto-Ewoldt

The biogeographical position of Chile has allowed the development of a large number of endemic species, particularly geophytes, with great potential for the ornamental plant and cut flower industry ( Bridgen et al., 2002 ). Chilean cut flowers and

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Paul W. Bosland and Danise Coon

The New Mexico State University chile pepper breeding program has announced the release of the cultivar NuMex NoBasco, an open-pollinated, no-heat Capsicum frutescens . Compared with C. annuum or C . chinense , there are relatively few named

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held at the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Universidad de Talca, Talca, Chile 30 October 2002

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Carolina Uquillas, Eduardo Torres, Antonio Ibacache, and Bruno G. Defilippi

three growing regions in Chile and fulfills a niche market for black grapes. ‘Iniagrape-one’ fills the harvest period between the current commercial black cultivars and expands the shipping period for black grapes for the Chilean harvest season

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Yayeh Zewdie and Paul W. Bosland

Pungency, caused by the presence of capsaicinoids, is a major quality-determining factor in chile (CapsicumL. sp.) The inheritance of nordihydrocapsaicin, capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, isomer of dihydrocapsaicin, and homodihydrocapsaicin has not yet been determined. Generations mean analysis revealed that additive, dominance, and interaction effects were significant for capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and isomer of dihydrocapsaicin in an interspecific hybridization of C. annuum L. × C. chinense Jacq. A simple additive-dominance model was sufficient to explain the genetic variation for nordihydrocapsaicin and homodihydrocapsaicin. Except dihydrocapsaicin and isomer of dihydrocapsaicin in the BCP1 family, the values of backcross families shift toward the recurrent parents. Because of the significant additive gene effect and the tendency of the values of the capsaicinoids at backcross families to shift toward the recurrent parents, repeated backcrossing and selection will increase and decrease (depending on the recurrent parent) the capsaicinoid content. Positive genetic correlations were observed between the capsaicinoids and the values ranged from 0.4 to 0.8. The estimated number of effective factors were 0.4 for nordihydrocapsaicin, 0.6 for homodihydrocapsaicin, 0.9 for isomer of dihydrocapsaicin, 1.1 for dihydrocapsaicin, 2.8 for total capsaicinoids, and 6.2 for capsaicin. Different gene actions and a different number of effective factors involved in the capsaicinoids inheritance imply that different genes are controlling the synthesis of each capsaicinoid.

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Jay M. Lillywhite, Jennifer E. Simonsen, and Mark E. Uchanski

million SHU ( Bosland et al., 2012 ). Any pepper type with ≥ 1 SHU could be considered spicy. However, for this study, paprika (0–300 SHU), New Mexico long green or red chile (300–500 SHU), and poblano/ancho (≈1369 SHU) types were included as mild spicy